DIPOL Weekly Review – TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 13/2024 (March 25, 2024)

Bionic hand powered by artificial intelligence.

Atom Limbs, an innovative California-based company and leader in the advanced prosthetics industry, has developed a revolutionary next-generation bionic hand powered by artificial intelligence (AI) technology. This innovative technology uses advanced sensors and machine learning to interpret electrical signals from the human brain, making it possible to move and manipulate the prosthesis. The bionic arm offers a full range of human motion at the elbow, wrist and fingers, while providing feedback on grip strength. It is attached using a reinforced sports vest, allowing for even weight distribution without the need for surgery or implants. Prosthetic limbs have come a long way since they were made of wood, tin and leather, offering users greater functionality and comfort.
Paul Carter testing of prosthetic technology
The price of Atom Limbs' bionic arm, at around $20,000, is significantly lower than other bionic products on the market, which could make the technology more accessible to people with disabilities. However, the cost remains a challenge, given the high price of supporting devices and the fact that people with disabilities are often among the poorest groups in society. Atom Limbs is currently in the early stages of development, gathering the data needed to file regulatory paperwork in the US. This means that while their products show promise, it will still be some time before they become widely available to users.

A few words about 5G.

The 5G network is the fifth generation of wireless technology standards used in telecommunications. It offers significantly faster data transfer speeds than earlier versions: 3G and 4G. The 5G technology has the potential to change the way people, vehicles, devices will communicate with each other. In addition to high-speed data transfer, the 5G network provides lower latency and greater capacity to support a much larger number of devices simultaneously. This makes 5G a key element for the development of technologies such as autonomous cars, the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud gaming, and augmented reality (AR).
Maximum 5G speeds can vary depending on a number of factors, such as the specific network operator, the frequency band used, infrastructure availability and environmental conditions. In general, a 5G network has the potential to offer data transfer speeds of up to several gigabits per second (Gbps). However, in practice, typical 5G speeds can be significantly lower, but still significantly higher than those offered by earlier generations of wireless networks, such as 4G. Depending on specific conditions, these speeds can range from tens to hundreds of megabits per second (Mbps).
In Europe, the frequency bands used for wireless communications, including mobile technologies, are regulated by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) and the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC). The most commonly used frequency bands include:
  • 700 and 800 MHz: Low frequency bands that offer good coverage in the field and penetration in buildings. They are used for both 4G and 5G.
  • 900 MHz: This frequency band mainly used for 2G and 3G, but can also be used for some 4G implementations.
  • 1800 MHz: A medium frequency band that is widely used for 2G and 4G.
  • 2100 MHz: A medium frequency band that is often used for 3G, but can also be used for 4G in some regions.
  • 2600 MHz: A high frequency band that is often used for 4G, and is also a significant component in some 5G implementations.
  • 3500 MHz (3.5 GHz): This frequency band is becoming a key area for 5G development in Europe. It is widely used for 5G implementations due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data with high throughput.
Note that the specific allocation of frequency bands may vary between countries, as decisions on this issue often depend on local regulations and policies.
Antenna TRANS-DATA 5G KYZ 10/10 + 5 m cable + SMA [698-960, 1710-2700, 3300-3800 MHz]
An example of an antenna from 5G signal enhancement: TRANS-DATA 5G KYZ 10/10 antenna A741027_5 (2 × 5m cable), A741027_10 (2 × 10m cable).

Measurements in fiber optic systems. Part 1 – general description of methods.

Among the measurement methods defined by PN-ISO/IEC 14763-3 and PN-EN 61280-4-2 standards, those related to the so-called basic and extended tests can be distinguished. Basic tests ("Tier 1") make it possible to determine the compliance of a completed channel or fixed link with the requirements of a given application (e.g., one of the Ethernet applications) and possible certification of the network. Extended tests ("Tier 2") are usually used in addition to the basic test, or in situations where the basic test gives a negative result and it is necessary to thoroughly verify the reason for this.
The aforementioned standards defining parameters, methods and measurement procedures are directly related to structured cabling standards: ISO/IEC 11801 and EN 50173. Installers implementing such networks and performing certification should strictly adhere to the rules defined in the standards and use equipment that allows such tests and the issuance of the applicable certificate. In practice, the permissible equipment to be used is defined in the warranty conditions of the structured cabling manufacturer.
A series of ULTIMODE devices for testing and measuring fiber optic installations.
A series of ULTIMODE devices for testing and measuring fiber optic installations.
However, there is an area of systems that are not implemented with reference to structured cabling standards and for which no costly certification is expected. In such a situation, however, investors often expect a document certifying that the system has been made correctly and will work when active equipment is connected to it. Often the installer also wants to verify whether the parameters of the system installed, such as its attenuation, will allow it to be used for specific applications. How to proceed then? Which measuring devices to use? What standards to refer to? How to properly carry out the measurement procedure? We will answer these and other questions comprehensively in the next issues of the Weekly Review.
The division of methods into the basic tests and extended tests mentioned in the first paragraph is certainly what every installer should use in their work.
A basic test is a test that primarily measures the attenuation of the channel. Such a measurement – known as the transmission measurement (or transmission method) – uses a stable light source and an optical power meter. In a nutshell, these devices, connected to the two ends of a fiber-optic link, allow to measure the attenuation contributed by it. Attenuation/insertion loss is absolutely the most important parameter to consider when verifying a fiber optic system. Low-cost, popular light sources and optical power meters generally end their capabilities here. Very expensive sets designed for network certification additionally allow measurement of such parameters as link propagation delay, link length and link continuity. What is extremely important, they also allow the evaluation of the compliance of the results with selected assumptions or standards and the preparation of a measurement report. The lack of such a possibility in the case of low-cost meters and light sources, causes installers to turn their attention to devices that allow extended tests – most often the OTDRs.
Extended tests, as a rule, are intended to complement basic measurements. So consider whether, even with an OTDR reflectometer, we should not be primarily tempted to measure using the transmission method. This is due to the fact that OTDRs do not measure, but calculate the attenuation of the measured line, or the events occurring in it (more on this topic in future issues of the Weekly Review). The final result of the attenuation measurement is therefore the result of an algorithm and not a realistically measured value as is the case with a light source and meter. It must also be mentioned here that obtaining the attenuation value of the entire link (i.e. the parameter that is most important in the context of the implementation of a structured cabling network) in the case of reflectometric measurement is usually quite breakneck and requires an appropriate measurement procedure as well as additional processing of the results. For this reason, among others, reflectometric measurement should not be the basis for network certification. Instead, it allows precise localization of faults and verification of parameters (calculation of attenuation and measurement of reflectance) of individual elements of the link.
The next issue of the Weekly Review will present the procedure of measurement by transmission method, i.e. the basic test of a fiber optic link.

TERRA channel amplifiers in RF SMATV systems.

DIPOL offers 2 models of TERRA channel amplifiers: PA420P R82516 PA321TP R82513. The first one has 2 VHF/UHF inputs, 1 UHF input, FM input, and built-in power supply. The second one has 2 VHF/UHF inputs and FM input, and is powered from an external power supply so it has a compact design and can be easily installed in cramped TV cabinets.
There are several competing solutions for channel amplifiers on the market. TERRA has focused on two aspects: good performance related to processing of TV signals (use of ultra-selective SAW filter) and quick and intuitive configuration, which is done using the TERRnet application installed on a mobile device or laptop.
It takes less than a minute to set up the TERRA channel amplifier with the TerrNet app. Just connect the phone to the amplifier (micro USB -> USB-C cable available at item E0080), select the country of installation, choose from the list the number of channels to be amplified (divided into selected antenna inputs), and set the desired output signal level. You can also set gain correction at individual frequencies, taking into account attenuation characteristics of the cable. And that’s it. As simple as that. With the app, you can also view view the status of the signals (with 1 dB accuracy) at the input and output of the amplifier in the form of a graphical spectrum.
A three-stage amplification circuit connected to the AGC circuit automatically adjusts the signal gain at selected frequencies to the set output level. This gain can reach up to 63 dB, assuming a maximum output level setting (113 dBμV) and a minimum input level of 50 dBμV. The range of acceptable levels for the input signal is wide, 50-100 dBμV. This means that the amplifier can be used in amplifying both, weak and strong signals directly from the antenna, as well as used at the output of other active devices as additional amplification element. Moreover, the AGC circuit is capable of compensating signal fluctuations at the input of the amplifier within the range of up to 46 dB.
The PA series channel amplifiers are really competitively priced. So they win not only in technical terms but also the cost of installation.
TERRA channel amplifiers, due to their specifications and setup, can be used in virtually any type of antenna system, by any installer, a beginner or a pro, also by those who are afraid of technical innovations and have been using the same solutions for years not always to the benefit of the customer.

People counting in Sunell cameras.

The functionality of commercially available IP cameras Sunell with March software update has been upgraded with the function of people counting. The new algorithms can execute the people counting process by detecting the silhouettes of people (other objects like cars and animals are ignored). When a person crosses a designated line, counting takes place, and the system can display on the image the statistics of people's movement in both directions (entrance and exit) and the difference between these values. This is important to know how many people are entering and exiting the monitored area.
In addition, the cameras on the built-in memory store data and can generate different types of reports, such as daily, monthly or yearly, allowing users to analyze trends and make decisions on traffic management or security. The system can also notify users when certain limits of people in an area are exceeded.
View of count lines and counters
Daily statistics

Control of relays in the IP Villa 2 gen. door/gate station with external buttons.

Video intercom door/gate stations IP Villa 2nd generation (except for DS-KV6113-WPE1 DS-KV6103-PE1(C)), have 2 independently triggered built-in relays, which enable the control of e.g. a wicket or an entrance gate. By default, the second relay in the door/gate station is off and should be activated with the iVMS-4200 app or via a web browser. Those outputs can be triggered using the iVMS-4200 PC client application, indoor stations or after shorting to ground (GND) of AIN4 (DOOR2 relay activation) and AIN3 (DOOR1 relay activation) inputs. Those inputs are often used for the installation of local opening buttons, mounted at a safe distance so that they cannot be reached from outside the fence. The solution can open the wicket without a key, if no movable handle or knob is installed on the inner side. The gate can open quickly without the need for a remote control.
Connecting to local opening buttons to Villa door/gate stations
DS-KV8113-WME1(C), DS-KV8213-WME1(C), DS-KV8413-WME1(C)

New products offered by DIPOL

Alpsat AS33-IPCX multifunctional CCTV tester (7
Multifunctional CCTV tester Alpsat AS33-IPCX (7", IP, HD-CVI/AHD/HD-TVI/CVBS, HDMI, PoE) M3214 is a universal tool to facilitate the execution, configuration and maintenance of CCTV systems and networks. The meter is compatible with IP (up to 8 MP) and HD-CVI, HD-TVI (up to 8 MP) AHD (up to 5 MP) and CVBS cameras. Thanks to the monitor's high resolution, 1920 × 1200, you can view camera images in high quality, allowing you to fine-tune the most important settings. The large touchscreen and additional control buttons provide extremely user-friendly operation.
ULTIMODE FC-205 FC/UPC 5 dB optical attenuator
FC/UPC 5 dB ULTIMODE FC-205 L4516 optical attenuator used to match optical levels to the dynamic range of the optical receiver input. Mostly used in satellite and terrestrial DVB-T TV distribution systems using fiber optics.Attenuation value: 5 dB. Designed for connections based on single-mode cabling. The element should be used with devices equipped with FC/UPC socket and cabling terminated with FC/UPC or FC/PC plug.
ULTIMODE A-M233 multimode adapter, 2xLC - 2xLC, duplex, OM3 turquoise (aqua)
ULTIMODE A-M233 multimode adapter, 2xLC – 2xLC, duplex, OM3 turquoise l43233 connects multimode optical fibers terminated with LC connectors. Turquoise color, characteristic of OM3 standard connections.
ULTIMODE fiber optic adapters are characterized by high quality workmanship (ceramic ferrule) and precise positioning of plug ferrules, which results in low attenuation of connections (< 0.2 dB).===

Worth reading

Building a house? Think of fiber optic. When designing or building a house, a lot is said about proper planning of cabling for low-current systems. However, laying the right cables outside the house at an early stage is often forgotten. Usually, apart from power cables, these include twisted-pair cables (e.g. for video intercom, surveillance cameras, intelligent house system elements etc.)...>>>more
The L79302 ground cable is a cost-effective, reliable and simple solution. Two single-mode fibers in G.657A1 standard will allow to provide Internet and other services.
120 cm satellite dishes for SMATV systems