DIPOL Weekly Review – TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 18/2023 (May 1, 2023)

How to create environmentally friendly electronics?

Researchers at Duke University (USA) have developed a new technology for producing fully recyclable printed electronics that uses materials free of toxic chemicals. Today's electronics typically contain environmentally harmful substances that are difficult to dispose of, thus limiting their reusability. The new technology aims to reduce the environmental impact of electronics and create a more sustainable electronics industry.
Diagram and electrical performance graph of a transistor printed with environmentally friendly materials: carbon nanotube semiconductor, graphene gate, nanocellulose insulating layer.
Complex electronic chips consist of multiple layers of components that are bonded together to form a single circuit or electronic board. Scientists have developed three carbon-based inks to print electronics: semiconducting carbon nanotubes, conductive graphene and insulating nanocellulose. Previously, scientists had already developed a printing method, but it was not environmentally friendly. The problem was the low viscosity of the carbon nanotubes, and raising the viscosity required the use of strong chemicals or a very energy-intensive process that required heating to high temperatures. The researchers have now developed a cyclic process in which the printed part is washed with water, dried at a relatively low temperature, and then another layer is applied. This allows successive layers to be bonded together in an environmentally friendly manner. The researchers showed that the transistors produced in this way are fully functional and signalled to the rest of the industry that there is a viable way to make some electronics manufacturing processes much more environmentally friendly. They also proved that almost 100% of the carbon nanotubes and graphene used in printing can be recovered and reused. Nanocellulose is made from wood and can simply be recycled or biodegraded, just like paper.
The researchers say that the above-described printing method can be used in the production of other electronic components, such as screens and displays.

Install with DIPOL.

Installers, do you buy from DIPOL? Do you install our products? Take a photo of your projects completed with our products, and in return you will get points to spend on DIPOL gadgets for each described project. For more information about the promotional campaign, visit Install with DIPOL. The following are photos of a TV/SAT system listed in the campaign, completed by MAR-SAT Instalacje from Chrzanów.
TV/SAT system with antennas mounted on a truss mast consisting of two MK-1.5 m E9160 segments, attached to the foundation with MK E9161 base. The structure is equipped with a lightning protection system. Mounted on the mast are: the Triax 100 cm SAT antenna with quatro LNB FTE eXcellento A9864, DIPOL 44/24-48 Tri Digit antenna for UHF band A2670, DIPOL 7/5-12 antenna for VHF band A0710. The TRISET-113 PE E1017_100 outdoor cables from the LNB and the combined signal from the DVB-T2 terrestrial TV and radio antennas are routed directly to the SIGNAL R48606 surge protection box. Then, a system made of 5 TRISET-11 E1027_300 cables is routed to the MV-508 TERRA R70708 multiswitch located in the house.

Door station for Hikvision IP video door entry system for narrow poles.

DS-KV6113-WPE1(B) G73624 is a compact 1-subscriber door station for the Hikvision IP video intercom system with a built-in MIFARE tag reader. Due to its compact size, this model is ideal for installation in places with limited space, e.g. on narrow columns. The door station is equipped with an infrared illuminator with a range of up to 3 m to ensure visibility at night. It can communicate with the station in a wired fashion using the Ethernet interface or via Wi-Fi in the absence of dedicated cabling. The station is equipped with 1 relay dedicated to wicket control without the possibility of expansion. An unquestionable advantage of this door station is that after connecting to the Internet, operation via a mobile application, such as call forwarding or remote wicket opening, is possible without installing an additional monitor.
View of the DS-KV6113-WPE1(C) G73624 door station

Lightning – protection of signal paths – part 2.

During lightning discharges, surges can occur in signal cables, which can cause damage to electronic equipment. Surges are generated within a radius of up to 1.5 km from the point of lightning strike.
NetProtect J2830 lowers the voltage to a safe level in accordance with European standards for this type of equipment thus reducing the number of failures. It requires no power supply and does not cause interference with data transmission.
Computer Network Protector: NetProtect
NetProtect J2830 computer system protection.
When protecting devices powered via PoE, it is worth using AXON PoE NetProtector J2836 which contains two transmission paths: data (lines 1-2, 3-6) and power (lines 4, 5, 7, 8). Both paths are protected by surge protection elements that dissipate unwanted charge to the ground, and also protect the lines between each other within a pair of wires. To increase the load capacity of the power path, line 4 is shorted to 5, and line 7 is shorted to 8.
Computer Network Protector: AXON PoE NetProtector
AXON PoE NetProtector J2836 network protection.

The phenomenon of dispersion in fiber optic transmission.

One of the phenomena having a major impact on reducing the transmission bandwidth and distance of fiber optic cables is a dispersion. It worsens the signal-to-noise ratio and increases the amount of transmission errors. There are several types of dispersion:
Modal dispersion – occurs only in multimode fibers. Due to the fact that each mode traveling in the fiber reaches the receiver at slightly different time, the edges of the pulses at the end of the line are blurred, which forces an increase in the distance between the transmitted pulses and thus a significant reduction of the bandwidth of the transmitted data. Modal dispersion also limits the maximum transmission distance of multimode fibers;
Modal dispersion in a multimode fiber
Polarization mode dispersion – occurs in single-mode fibers. The reason is the fact that any fiber core is not perfectly symmetric (its real cross section is not a perfect circle), as well as the refractive index is not isotropic, so the vertical and horizontal polarizations of the mode travel with a slightly different velocities. This phenomenon limits the maximum transmission distance.
Polarization mode dispersion in a single-mode fiber
Chromatic dispersion – the waves of different lengths reach the end of the waveguide at different moments, which is a major problem in the use of CDWM and DWDM techniques, with transmissions on multiple wavelengths. There are two components of chromatic dispersion, material dispersion determined by the material composition of a fiber, and waveguide dispersion determined by the waveguide index profile of a fiber.
Chromatic dispersion in a single-mode fiber
Since the components of chromatic dispersion over a range of wavelengths differ in sign, it is possible to determine the wavelength of zero chromatic dispersion (in the example above: 1300 nm). The manufacturers can also change the components in the production process, moving the zero dispersion area to the region used by a given transmission technique.

New products offered by DIPOL

YKY-żo 3x2.5 1kV cable /1m/
YKY-żo 3x2.5 1kV /1m/ E41232 cable is one type of electrical conductors used in low-voltage electrical systems. It consists of copper wires in PVC insulation. YKY designation means that this cable is intended for systems with a rated voltage of up to 1000 V. The cables are used to carry power outdoors, including lighting systems, electrical sockets and other electrical equipment.

Channel amplifier CAD-804 4xVHF/UHF+FM ALCAD
The CAD-804 4xVHF/UHF+FM channel amplifier ALCAD R82620 is dedicated to difficult reception conditions with signals of various levels, transmitted from several directions. The amplifier has 4 programmable inputs for the VHF band (174-240 MHz)/UHF band (470-694/862 MHz), 1 input for the FM band (40-108 MHz) enabling 32 channel paths. The amplifier enables the reception, equalization and amplification of those signals. The automatic gain control system equalizes the signal level for all channels regardless of their level at the device input (while maintaining the minimum required for proper signal quality).

IP NVR: IP NVR Hikvision AcuSense DS-7604NXI-K1/4P (4 ch., 40 Mbps, 1 x SATA, VGA, HDMI, 4 x PoE, H.265)
Hikvision AcuSense DS-7604NXI-K1/4P IP NVR K22033 is a modern 4-channel IP recorder, recording image from IP cameras with a resolution of up to 12 MP. It has a built in 4-port PoE switch for direct connection and supplying of IP cameras. It is equipped with parallel HDMI/VGA outputs that display the same image. 1 SATA port enables connection of hard drives with a capacity of up to 10 TB. If the memory is full, automatic overwriting is triggered to prevent the loss of the latest data. The built-in USB ports allow you to connect a USB flash drive or external disk and copy specific fragments to external data carriers.

Worth reading

Broken direct access cable – how to repair? The DACs (Direct Access Cables) make a popular group of fiber optic cables that can be laid directly in the ground, without the need for additional protective conduits. These cables are used in practically every kind of fiber optic systems, from local monitoring systems to operator applications, most often as the "last mile" section, i.e. at the direct customer connection. DAC cables can be damaged (ruptured) due to earth works carried out in the area or spontaneous earth pressure (landslides, freezing of the ground) that exceeds strength parameters of the cable. >>>more
The L56040 repair coupler allows the connection of two DAC cables