DIPOL Weekly Review – TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 25/2021 (June 21, 2021)

As every year, the Review will not be published during the holiday season.

The next issue will be available on August 30, 2021

We wish all Readers, Customers, and Business Partners

great and safe holiday time!

Laser transmission in space.

This year's landing of the Perseverance rover on Mars, followed by the transmission of excellent-quality images and even video to Earth, has sparked discussion about how to effectively transmit data over such a long distance. Not surprisingly, NASA has long been working on improvements in this area. They have developed a method of communication in which the standard information medium, an appropriately modulated radio wave, will be replaced by laser light. The launch of the LCRD test transmitter (Laser Communications Relay Demonstration) into space and the first tests will begin soon.
Laser communications will enable data to be transmitted toward Earth up to 100 times faster than current radio systems do. It would take about nine weeks to transmit a complete map of Mars to Earth with current radio systems. With lasers, it would take about nine days. Importantly, laser communication systems require less space, are lighter, and require less power, meaning less wear and tear on spacecraft power systems.
Radio waves and infrared light are types of electromagnetic waves – they differ in length and range. Radio waves, due to the nature of propagation, are more diffuse. This results in limited and less efficient transmission over long distances. Laser technology makes it possible to transmit a cumulative portion of data in the form of a narrow laser beam so the ground stations receive more information in a single packet. This narrow beam unfortunately requires very exact targeting of the transmitter and receiver. This presents a significant technical challenge in some situations.
Graphical representation of the difference in data rate and beam width between radio and laser communications
The first device equipped with LCRD will be ILLUMA-T (Integrated LCRD Low-Earth Orbit User Modem and Amplifier Terminal), which will be installed on the International Space Station in 2022. It will enable transmission speeds of 1.2 Gbps.

Summer Photo Contest!

Take part in the 20th edition of our “Engagingly about Antennas” contest. Encouraged by the high artistic level of the photos sent to us over the past editions, we have decided for a novelty – extending the formula of the contest with a new category, the video. Once again we encourage photographers, and now filmmakers, to present their works, which will be judged by Pawel Zechenter, by a well-known photographer and filmmaker from Krakow. On the occasion of this anniversary, we have arranged extremely attractive prizes, such as DJi Mini 2 drones and JBL Bluetooth speakers. You can learn more about the contest and the rules here.
Photo and video contest “Engagingly about Antennas”
Main prizes in the competition - DJI Mini 2 drones

The modern video compression method, AI Coding – how does it work?

Monitoring devices allow recording images with increasingly higher resolutions, which results in increased demand for bandwidth and disk space. In order to ensure high quality of video recording, while generating optimal amount of data, it is necessary to use efficient methods of image compression. One of the best and, most importantly, optimized for monitoring is the AI Coding codec developed by Dahua.
The support for CCTV systems is based on a principle that priority is given to moving objects, which must be very clear, while the background can be compressed more, especially when it is unchanging. The algorithm itself is based on 3 main engines that work together to produce the highest quality image possible while sparing the amount of data.
  • Video analysis engine.
  • Used for scene assessment and analysis (e.g. determining the of time of day, weather conditions). Performs real-time video analysis, detects motion in the image, types objects and areas, which it divides into background and targets.
  • Data allocation engine.
  • According to the result of the analysis engine, it determines how much data can be allocated to a particular location in the monitored scene. If the analysis engine detects the presence of people or vehicles, the algorithm will allocate more data to them, while the background areas will receive less data. The most common situation is that the background occupies a very large part of the images, while in the monitoring system it is not important.
  • Bit stream compression engine.
  • It selects the best configuration of existing encoders to compress the bitstream, according to the data allocation from the allocation engine.
AI Coding video compression is available on WizSense and WizMind IP cameras, and in the WizeSense HD-CVI DVRs.

Simple point-to-multipoint KVM.

The Signal-HD HDMI to IP converter enables the user to connect remote (up to 100 m) source of HD content to HD-enabled television/monitor, using one CAT5e/6 cable. The package includes the transmitter and receiver units. It is also possible to extend the USB port e.g. to control the recorder with a mouse and a keyboard.
IP signal coming from the transmitter may be applied to an Ethernet switch to split it among multiple receivers. The bit rate of the compressed signal at the transmitter output is approx. 15 Mbps. For proper decoding of the signal with a greater number of devices displaying the image a dedicated H3613R receiver is required, the preview of the image on a PC equipped with network card is not possible.
Application diagram of the HDMI > IP converter (point-to-multipoint connection)

How to receive DVB-T2/HEVC signal in a SMATV system with DVB-T/MPEG-4 receivers?

By 2022, a new standard of terrestrial television broadcasting, called DVB-T2/HEVC, will be introduced throughout the European Union. The introduction of the new broadcasting standard should not require changing the receiving antenna, but one may need to change its direction or upgrade the TV system if the TV sets do not support DVB-T2 standard with HEVC codec (also known as H.265 or MPEG-H part 2) and process audio encoded according to the E-AC-3 standard (also known as Dolby Digital Plus or DD+). While in the case of a small system with one or several TVs there should be no problem (it is enough to buy a DVB-T2/HEVC decoder that is connected via HDMI output), it may be quite an issue for larger number of TVs (especially in boarding houses, hotels and the like). The pictures below show measurements of DVB-T2 signal with the use of ST-5150 Signal R10842 meter and example system with the change of the DVB-T2/HEVC standard to DVB-T/H264 possible.
///The picture above shows the measurement of DVB-T2/HEVC signal performed with the Signal ST-5150 meter using DIPOL 28/5-12/21-60 DVB-T/T2 A2810 antenna. The measurements have been performed on channel 27 (frequency: 522 MHz). The signal has PWR = 72 dBµV and MER = 30.5 dB. Such values allow for trouble-free reception of terrestrial television on any TV set. In addition, the ST-5150 R10842 meter has a built-in tuner allowing to continuously monitor the set channel in the DVB-T2/HEVC standard.
///Diagram of TV system allowing to receive DVB-T2/HEVC signal and convert it to DVB-T/H264 standard. Signal from DIPOL 28/5-12/21-60 DVB-T/T2 A2810 antenna has been distributed via R60106 splitter to 6 DVB-T2/HEVC decoders. Then the signal in Full HD resolution (1920x1080-30p) fed to the HDMI port of the MHD001P R86103 modulator has been modulated to the DVB-T COFDM standard.

Cost effective monitoring using Hikvision IP EasyIP Lite series cameras.

The diagram below shows an IP CCTV monitoring system based on Hikvision cameras and a DVR. EasyIP Lite series cameras are used in the monitoring system. This series is distinct for good image quality and affordable pricing. Basic alarm events, such as motion detection or image tampering, are supported. 2 MP cameras with a focal length of 2.8 mm and an IR illuminator up to 30 m based on the EXIR 2.0 technology are installed in the facility. For outdoor use, the DS-2CD1023G0-I K17661 cameras are recommended, and for indoor installation, the DS-2CD1123G0E-I K00101 ceiling cameras are the right option. The Seagate 2 TB M89271 hard drive used in the recorder ensures the storage of recordings with continuous recording from all cameras for 11 days when using H.265 compression (2 MP @ 25 fps, 2 Mbps). The entire system is powered by the PoE N299851 switch. An 8-channel Hikvision DS-7608NI-K2 K22074 IP DVR is used to record the image. To enable access to the recorder via Internet or Wi-Fi, you , can connect a router to the system, e.g. the TP-Link C2 AC900 N3255.
IP CCTV system based on EasyIP Lite cameras

Quality of splices made with Signal Fire splicer.

For many installers the value of attenuation of splices is the key issue when choosing a splicer. The market for splicers is broad and the opinions that can be found on the Internet about a particular model of splicer can be extremely varied. In addition to a number of performance issues, the quality of the splices that a particular splicer makes should be the crucial factor in determining whether it is good or bad. The quality of the splice is determined by its durability and attenuation.
Fusion Splicer: Signal Fire AI-9 (with toolbox and tools)
The engineers of DIPOL Technical Department have conducted a test of attenuation of splices made with Signal Fire splicers. The so-called transmission method with a reference measurement was used to do so. For the test, special boxes have been designed that contain about 120 m of G.652D standard optical fiber, terminated with SC/APC connectors on one side. The other end of the fiber remains free – it can be freely unwound and repeatedly alternately spliced and broken. In addition, the boxes are equipped with a splice tray.
Test bench with dedicated fiber boxes and Signal Fire splicer
The tests showed an average splice attenuation for a wavelength 1550 nm to be 0.04 to 0.05 dB. The generally accepted standard is to allow splices with attenuation not exceeding 0.1 dB. However, there are factory standards and European standards that allow 0.15 dB or even 0.3 dB of attenuation. For the 1310 nm wavelength, the indications were lower and ranged from 0.00 dB - 0.03 dB.
More photos of the measurement and a detailed description and results of the test procedure are available here.

New products offered by DIPOL

Optical Transmitter: mo418 4F31 TERRA 1x6 dBm FP 1310 nm
mo418 4F31 TERRA optical transmitter R82526 is designed for transmitting TV signals via fiber optic medium. The device converts electrical signal (coaxial cable) to optical signal. The optical output power of 6 dBm (4 mW) allows you to distribute TC signal to several distribution points, depending on the sensitivity of the receiving equipment. In the case of point-to-point links, the transmission range may reach up to 20 km.

Industrial PoE Switch ULTIPOWER 350mini 5xGE (4xPoE 802.3af)
PoE ULTIPOWER 350MINI N299725 switch is dedicated for industrial applications ensuring smooth network transmission. in 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet networks. Its five RJ45 ports support auto-negotiation and power over Ethernet (PoE function). The switch automatically detects PD devices compliant with IEEE 802.3af or IEEE 802.3at standard and provides them with power supply.

PoE Switch: TP-Link TL-SG3428X 24xGE 4xSFP+ Omada SDN
TP-Link TL-SG3428X PoE switch N30112 is an advanced device for network traffic management. It features 4 SFP+ 10 Gbps slots for high throughput and switching capabilities and 24 1 Gbps ports. The switch can be managed by Omada SDN platform.

Worth reading

Video intercom system for one-family house - IP Hikvision of 2nd generation. A diagram of the Hikvision IP video intercom system for a single-family house is shown below. The system is based on the DS-KD8003-IME1/EU G73652 door/gate station main module with a built-in 2 MP camera, one call button and 2 relays to control the wicket and the entrance gate. Two 7” DS-KH8350-WTE1/EU G74003 monitors with an IPS display are installed in the apartment. The Ultipower N29980 switch with 4 PoE ports supporting 802.3af is used to supply the door/gate station and monitors. The system is connected to the Internet via the TP-Link Archer C7 AC1750 N3262 router. The wicket is controlled with the use of the Bira ES1-001 G74210 electric door strike with steel keeper/latch with 4 mm adjustment range, suitable for 12 V AC or DC power supply. It is supplied with the 12 V DC M1820 power supply...>>>more
IP video intercom system for a single-family house.
Signal Fire AI-8/AI-8C/AI-9 - how to begin fusion splicing?