No. 30/2020 (Sept. 28, 2020)
How many CCTV cameras are there currently in London?
There are now around 25 million CCTV cameras estimated to be in use worldwide, and London is one of the best monitored cities in the world. Official figures only partially reveal how many cameras watch the streets of London. The UK has some of the strictest privacy laws in place. The vast majority of CCTV cameras are used by private users and companies, not by the authorities. Private CCTV cameras have to be registered with the Information Commissioner's office only when they are not used for domestic purposes, such as private property surveillance.
According to the estimates of the British Security Industry Association (BSIA), the number of cameras in the private sector may exceed the number of those used by public institutions at a ratio of 70:1. The BSIA study covered the whole of the UK, not just London, and its maximum estimates suggest that there is one CCTV camera per every 14 people in the country.
It is believed that an average commuter with an hour's lunch break can be captured by up to 300 CCTV cameras in a standard working day while walking around London.
These numbers can be then correlated to the London's current population to estimate how many surveillance cameras there may be in the capital city. The latest official London population estimate of the Bureau of Statistics report that the approximate number of people living in the city is 8.787 million. If there was one camera for 14 people in London this would mean that the number of CCTV cameras used in the capital city would be 627,707.
Hik-ProConnect – cloud service for installers and integrators of Hikvision systems. Hik-ProConnect
is a state-of-the-art, cloud-based platform for installers and integrators of Hikvision systems. It is used for remote management and supervision of security systems connected to the Hik-Connect service. CCTV and alarm systems, video intercoms, access control and other IoT devices (e.g. wireless bells) are compatible with Hik-ProConnect.
Hik-ProConnect system structure
The operation of the systems is simple thanks to the organization of devices in special structures related to end customers, called locations. Every location is assigned to specific employees having access to the status of devices and receiving notifications when anomalies are detected. In case of any issue the installer can remotely configure the system and verify the camera images, both live and recorded. Access to those functions is limited by the end user who grants appropriate permissions (and decide what and for how long) using the Hik-Connect client application.
Four wires – two satellites.
The use of quatro converters in multiswitch systems to receive programs from two satellite positions (HotBird 13.0E and Astra 19.2E) requires installation of 8 TRISET-113
coaxial cables. With the use of Wide Band A98222
LNBs, this number can be reduced to four. Unlike standard quatro LNBs, the Wide Band LNB has two signal outputs (H/V polarization). It is based on a single local 10.41 GHz oscillator providing excellent performance in the entire frequency range of 290...2340 MHz.
The Wideband LNB works with the dSCR SRM-581 (290...2340 MHz) TERRA R80581
multiswitch, which has 5 inputs: two pairs of SAT IF inputs (290...2340 MHz; V1, H1, V2, H2) enabling the satellite signal to be supplied from two Wide Band A98222
LNBs, and an active terrestrial TV path (DVB-T/Radio signal). Each of the 8 outputs can work as a dSCR Out type output (enabling Unicable signal to be supplied to up to 16 receivers after using signal splitters) or Legacy Out (standard output, as in standard multiswitches used to connect a satellite receiver).
The SRM-581 single-cable cascadable multiswitch (R80581) allows for the distribution of DVB-S/S2 signals from two satellites, as well as of terrestrial signals, such as DVB-T and DAB+/FM radio), with a single coaxial cable, based on dSCR (digital Satellite Cable Router) technology. The multiswitch fully supports receivers operating in two dynamic modes: SCR (Unicable I - 8 User Bands) and dSCR (Unicable II - 32 User Bands).
An example of an TV/SAT system enabling the distribution of digital signals with the dSCR/Unicable technology with an active DVB-T/Radio path. At each of the two multiswitch outputs, for each of the 4 pairs, the signal can be split for up to 16 Unicable receivers independently. Every satellite receiver in the system has the so-called User Band assigned, with a width similar as that of a satellite transponder. The output frequencies are fixed and each of them is assigned to a STB (user band or UB). The receiver chooses which input frequency (Ku band) to choose and then convert to the User Band. This choice is based on the DiSEqC command from the set-top-box, defined in the EN50494 specification (splitting up to 8 signals via one cable) or the EN50607 (splitting up to 32 signals via one cable).
IP addressing – part 1.
Exchanging data between at least two computers requires a dedicated computer network to be created. The devices communicate in a network via appropriate communication protocols using transmission media. Not only computers and servers can be connected to a computer network these days, but also CCTV equipment, alarms, smart home components or household appliances.
When configuring network interfaces of that equipment, the user is prompted to enter dedicated network settings:
- IP address,
- Subnet mask,
- Ports (for specific services).
Each network device has its own IP address.
An example of setting the IP address for a CCTV IP camera.
IP address is the host identification number used for proper communication between devices. The IP address is a number assigned to a network interface, a group of interfaces (broadcast, multicast addresses) or to the entire computer network, used to identify network components and being one of the elements enabling them to communicate.
Two IP address versions can be distinguished:
IP version 4 (IPv4) – the IP address is a 32-bit number (from 0 to 4294967295), written in big endian format (data notation in which the most significant byte is placed first). The address is written as 4 separate bytes, called octets, since they have eight bits in a binary form. Those eight bits give 256 combinations, so each octet represents a number from 0 to 255. Sample IPv4 address: 188.8.131.52
IP version 6 (IPv6) – IP address is a 128-bit number not in decimal but in hexadecimal code. That means that the IP address consists of eight groups of digits, four digits from 0 to F in each group. Unlike the previous protocol version, the address range, i.e. the area of its visibility, is limited by the appropriate prefix. Sample IPv6 address: 2003:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0000:1428:57ac
The subnet mask will discussed in detail in the following issue of this Weekly Review.
Firmware upgrade in the 2-Wire Hikvision IP video intercom modular door station.
Firmware upgrade in the main module of the video intercom IP
, as well as connected extension modules is made possible using the iVMS-4200(v3)
software. To do so, after activating and adding the main module to the client application, go to the Remote Configuration->System->System Maintenance
tab. In the Remote Upgrade
section, select the module type to be upgraded and indicate the firmware file dedicated to it. The options are as follows:
- Controller Upgrade file (main module),
- Upgrade File For Display Module,
- Upgrade File For Other module.
Firmware upgrade window in the DS-KD8003-IME1/EU G73652
door station main module
using the iVMS-4200 (v3)
The indicated module will be upgraded after you select and confirm the desired firmware file.
How to choose a robust optical fiber cable?
The choice of a fiber optic cable for a given application can be based on a number factors, including the outer diameter, ease of placement in a shaft, resistance to UV radiation or ease of processing before splicing. Mechanical strength of the cable is also one of the main criteria.
There are two main parameters to consider when comparing different types of cables: tensile strength and crush resistance (or impact resistance). By comparing both parameters, the installer is able to estimate which cable is less likely to be damaged during installation or over the many years of use.
Tensile strength is usually expressed in terms of the maximum pulling force that can be applied to the cable so that the fibers inside the cable do not elongate by more than 0.06% to 0.33% of the original value (depending on the choice of the test method). Typically, a cable can be subjected to such force for a short time, i.e. during installation (hence this force is often called the maximum installation force). Cables rated for a range of 800-1500 N can be considered typical, with the lower limit being reserved for self-supporting cables, and the upper for typical cables with a loose central tube. Cables rated for 2000-3000 N can be considered more durable. These are safe to be pulled in conduits. Super-durable cables are also available with a maximum installation tension force of 5 or even 12 kN.
When analyzing tensile strength, it is also worth considering the maximum, long-term pulling force that can act on the given type of cable. The value of this parameter is usually much lower than that allowed during installation. In this case, maximum fiber elongation should not exceed 0.2% of the initial length. Some standards require that no elongation should occur at all.
Crush resistance (impact resistance) can be expressed in Nm or N, depending on the testing method used by the manufacturer. Cables can be compared directly provided they have been tested in the same way. Less resistant cables can withstand a max. crushing force of 300 N, while the corresponding value for more resistant models will be 4000 N. If the torque is given, strong cables are those of 20 Nm or more.
Specifications of two popular optical fiber cables are compared in the table below.
|Max. pulling force (during installation)
|Max. pulling force (static)
| 20 Nm
DRAKA universal cables combine strength and easy preparation
New products offered by DIPOL
ATE-TFT09-T3 (9 ", VGA, M12) car monitor
for use in vehicle video monitoring systems. The kit includes a mounting bracket for convenient installation inside the vehicle.
HDD Western Digital PURPLE WD100PURZ 10TB (3.5”, SATA III 6Gbps 256MB) M89330
is designed for use in 24/7 video surveillance systems. It offers customized performance, large capacity and long-lasting reliability. The drive is designed for a non-stop use in audio/video processing devices, such as DVRs or CCTV recorder based on a PC platform.
The Hikvision DS-2CE16H8T-IT3F M75686
4 in 1 dome camera can be used in video surveillance systems based on various types of DVRs. The user can select the required video standard from among HD-TVI, HD-CVI, AHD, or the legacy CVBS (ANALOG). The choice of the standard is made by the micro-switch located on the additional cable. The camera generates high quality image with 5 MP resolution. Thanks to high sensitivity , of the image sensor (0.003 lx) and built-in IR illuminator made in EXIR 2.0 technology with range up to 60 m, the camera provides high quality video coverage even in low lighting conditions.
Redundant supply of TERRA devices.
Redundant power supply systems are used to ensure reliability in selected applications. They provide a secondary, independent power source that is activated on the failure of the primary one...>>>more
The UP413 R82533
power supply generates a 12 VDC current to power devices
dedicated for the reception and processing of TV signals...>>>more
TRISET cables – tailored to requirements