DIPOL Weekly Review – TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 28/2019 (Sept. 23, 2019)

Optical neural networks will form the future of intelligent CCTV cameras.

Engineers from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), made a tremendous progress in designing optical neural networks. Such systems are inspired by the operation of the human brain, which can process information in a split second and classify objects based on the previously gained experience. Optical neural networks can be used in intelligent camera systems that easily identify objects and in autonomous cars or robots that have to make immediate decisions.
Image processing by an optical neural network
UCLA engineers have been working on this technique since 2018. The system uses a series of wafers or layers with uneven surfaces, printed in 3D technology, which let in or reflect the incoming light (they look like frosted glass). These layers have tens of thousands of pixels that are basically artificial neurons that make up "intelligent" material. Each object detected by the system will have a unique path of light running through 3D layers. Behind them, there will be several light detectors allowing for recognition of the original object depending on the amount of light that passes through the layers. In a recent study, published in the open access journal Advanced Photonics, UCLA scientists significantly increased system accuracy by using a set of two detectors.
Researchers tested accuracy of the system with the use of images containing handwritten numbers, clothing items, and a wide set of different vehicles and animals, known as the CIFAR-10 image data set. It turned out that the image recognition accuracy ratios are 98.6%, 91.1% and 51.4% respectively. These results are very favorable compared to earlier generations of fully electronic deep neural networks. While newer electronic systems have better performance, researchers suggest that optical systems have advantages in inference speed, low power consumption, and can be scaled up to accommodate and identify many different objects simultaneously.

Designing SMATV systems in multi-family buildings.

For multi-family buildings, designed in accordance with the requirements for the deployment of SMATV installations ensuring reception of satellite signals from two satellite positions, DIPOL offers multiswitches of the TERRA MR-9xx and MV-9xx series. The offered solution is widely used in the British, German, Australian and other markets. In Poland, TERRA professional multiswitches have enjoyed unwavering recognition among installations companies building large SMATV systems already since 2004. Excellent workmanship, stability of parameters, and very low failure rate make these multiswitches worth recommending even to the most demanding customers.
The diagram below shows an example SMATV installation for multi-family buildings. It has been saved in various formats:dwg, pdf and stn (SatNet program file for designing installations), which, in each form, you can easily adapt to your specific requirements.
A project made in the SatNet program
A project made with the use of SatNet utility, saved as a pdf file.
CLICK to download the full diagram (5.8 MB).
The design above shows an SMATV system for distribution of satellite signals from two satellite positions, DVB-T terrestrial television channels and FM radio broadcasts, all of them from one master antenna set, to 138 apartments in a building with 3 staircases. The trunk wiring consists of 11 coaxial cables (Triset-113 PE E1017) routed from the roof to a technical room located in the basement. The technical room houses nearly all active devices of the system. The signals are provided to the apartments via cables led from multiswitches installed in boxes located in staircases. The multiswitches in staircases are connected with the equipment in the technical room through a 9-cable multiswitch bus.
Other examples of SMATV systems can be found in the article Designing FM/TV and SAT TV distribution systems in multi-dwelling units

The most popular LTE antenna.

LTE technology is flexible both in the terms of the frequency range and bandwidth of the transmission channel. LTE networks can operate in frequency bands from 700 MHz (non-urbanized areas - longer range) to 2.6 GHz (metropolitan areas - higher capacity). An important element of LTE is MIMO technology (Multiple Input Multiple Output) increasing transmission efficiency by employing multiple antennas on both ends of the transmission links. LTE Advanced is a further extension of the LTE standard. Owners of devices compatible with LTE-A can theoretically reach transfers up to 300 Mbps, which is possible by aggregation of several frequency bands. It is important to choose LTE antennas that operate in the required frequency band and are compatible with the new transmission methods.
In many cases when a base station is far away from the mobile device, there are problems with the appropriate signal strength. In order to improve it, the best way is to connect to the modem an external antenna. Sometimes such an antenna can also be used for the improvement of the communication with a concrete base station offering e.g. the advantages of LTE-A standard. In each case it is important to buy broadband antennas that can operate in the "old" and "new" LTE bands and can provide the advantages of band aggregation.
Before choosing an outdoor antenna, the user should check out parameters of the signal received by the LTE modem. Usually it can be done by running a network diagnostic panel offered by the software of the router or modem. The parameters should be compared with the values shown below.

ATK-LOG ALP LTE MIMO 2x2 Antenna (800-3000MHz, 10m cables, SMA plug)
ATK-LOG ALP LTE 800-3000 MHz MIMO 2x2 antenna,
(SMA plug; A7054_10 with 10 m cable, A7054_5 with 5 m)

Fiber optics: can multimode devices be used with single-mode cabling and vice versa?

Installers with little experience in fiber optic systems often ask about consequences of mixing devices, cables, and patch cords of single-mode and multi-mode types. A common and the most correct statement is that one should not connect elements of different types within one installation.
Purely practical possibility, although absolutely not recommended, is connecting single-mode devices to multimode cabling. This is possible due to the very construction of multimode fibers: the core is five times thicker and is able to take over all the laser light coming out of an active device. The light is introduced into the multimode cable without major losses, however, it propagates differently than it does in a single-mode fiber (multimode fiber features larger core, different core structure and doping). Therefore, the maximum transmission distance in such a case is definitely shorter. It can be assumed that this distance is usually several hundred meters – depending on the transmitter power – from 200 to 500 m.
Optical fiber structure.
The key factor limiting the possibility of mixing different types of optical fibers are different core sizes.
It is completely unacceptable and practically impossible to use multimode devices with single-mode cabling. Plugging-in even 0.5 m long patch cord into such an installation will cause a complete loss of signal on the receiving side. Of course, this is a consequence of the previously described difference in the diameter of the cores of the different kinds of the fibers – the light from the laser or LED is intended to enter into a 50-micrometer multimode core will be dramatically reduced at the connection with the 9-micrometer core of the single mode fiber.

The principle of operation of the Sony Starvis image sensor.

Sony Starvis IMX 307 image sensor is the second generation of Back-Side Illumination (BSI) sensors. Their most important advantage is a significant improvement in sensitivity, which has become possible due to reversing the silicon wafer with photosensitive elements and the electronic circuitry. The light falling on the BSI matrix is not blocked by the circuitry, but reaches almost directly the photosensitive layer.
The new generation of BSI image sensors, Sarvis, has been equipped with an additional layer of microlenses placed on the Bayer filter, which is responsible for minimizing the adverse phenomena that may occur after the silicon wafer inversion. Thanks to them, the colors come out properly mapped, and the video signal has parameters much higher than those generated by traditional FSI image sensors (high SNR, low dark current). Cameras with such sensors are ideal for modern video monitoring systems.
DIPOL offers cameras equipped with this type of image sensor:
HD-TVI Camera V-CAM 370 (1080p, 3.6mm, 0.001 lx, IR up to 20m; HD-TVI, CVBS, AHD, HD-CVI)
HD-TVI Camera V-CAM 370 (ceiling, 1080p, 2.8-12mm, 0.001 lx, IR up to 30m; HD-TVI, CVBS, AHD, HD-CVI)
V-CAM 370 M7405
V-CAM 570 M7427

Second-generation Hikvision IP video intercom system for single-family homes.

The following diagram presents an implementation of Hikvision IP video intercom system in a single-family home. The installation is based on Hikvision DS-KD8003-IME1/EU G73652 door/gate station (the main module of IP video intercom) equipped with a fisheye camera with a resolution of 2 MP and a wide viewing angle of 180°. The module also has a built-in loudspeaker and microphone for making calls and a name tag card holder with 1 call button. Built-in 2 relays allow residents to control entrance gates. Inside the home, there are two 7" DS-KH8350-WTE1/EU G74003 touch screen monitors (IPS). The main module and monitors are powered from the Ultipower N29980 switch with four PoE ports (802.3af). The system has been connected to the Internet via the TP-Link Archer C7 AC1750 N3262 router. The gate has been equipped with the Bira ES1-001 G74210 electric door strike with 4 mm adjustment range. This model of the electric strike can be energized with 12 VAC or VDC. In this case it cooperates with the ZI-2000 12V/2A M1820 AC/DC adapter. The control of the electric strike is performed by the relay of the gate station.
Electric Door Strike: Bira ES1-001 (12V AC/DC, adjustable)Hikvision DS-KD8003-IME1/EU (main module of IP video intercom)DS-KD-ACW1 Hikvision 1-module surface-mounted housing7SMPS AC/DC Adapter ZI-2000 12V/2A (for CCTV cameras)PoE Switch: ULTIPOWER 0054af (5xRJ45, 4xPoE 802.3af)7Wireless Dual-band Gigabit Router: TP-Link Archer C7 AC1750 (2.4&5 GHz)
After pressing the button, both panels in the house ring simultaneously. After receiving the call by a resident, he or she can communicate with the caller using two-way audio/video transmission and the resident can open the gate. In the absence of residents, the call can be redirected to a smartphone and its user has the possibility to open the gate remotely. The built-in 256 MB memory in each of the monitors allows for recording photos, messages, as well as for leaving messages in the absence of residents. The remote operation via an Android smartphone requires the installation of the Hik-Connect app. The configuration and operation from a PC is performed with the use of the iVMS-4200 client application.

New products offered by DIPOL

Compact IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD7A46G0-IZS (4MP, 2.8–12mm Motozoom, 0.002 lx, IR up to 50m, WDR, IK10, H.265, DeepinView)
Compact IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD7A46G0-IZS K05912 is dedicated for professional IP CCTV systems. The compact camera has been equipped with high quality 4 MP 1/1.8" CMOS sensor providing good video coverage even in very low-light conditions. Along with IR illuminator with range up to 50 m, the camera can also operate in complete darkness. The built-in 2.8–12 mm Motozoom lens allows for remote change of the viewing angle within 104°– 29° range. The lens focuses automatically when the focal length is changed. The IP67-rated housing of the camera protects the electronics against adverse weather conditions. The camera can be powered conventionally with a 12 VDC source or with the use of PoE option (802.3at).
Powerline Network Adapters: TP-LINK TL-PA8010P (2pcs, 1.3Gbps, AC outlet)
Powerline Network Adapters TP-LINK TL-PA8010P N3367 allow network connection through existing power line. The pair or a set of the powerline adapters is an ideal solution in every case where it is impossible to install Ethernet cables or the environment is not suitable for a wireless medium.
DVB-S/S2 Receiver: Opticum HD Sloth Classic
DVB-S/S2 Receiver Opticum HD Sloth Classic A99398 combines features of a DVB-S/S2 receiver and multimedia player. The user can watch SD and HD channels in the highest quality, including pay-TV platforms (the receiver features embedded CONAX card reader, located on the front panel). The PVR-ready receiver can also be connected to the network (the USB and Ethernet ports are located on the rear panel). USB port can be used for connecting an external storage device or a wireless Wi-Fi card. Recording/timeshift and playing music (mp3, ogg, flac), movies (mkv, avi, xvid) and viewing photos (jpeg, bmp) are just a few examples of the use of this versatile device.

The latest

DIPOL is a Silver Partner of SPIN17. SPIN are annual meetings of designers of low voltage installations with producers and distributors of telecommunications equipment and the security industry. Open, two-day conferences gather 150 to 300 engineers. The next one will take place in Zakopane, on September 25-26. During the 17th edition of SPIN, DIPOL will another time take part as a Silver Partner. On the second day of the conference, our engineer Piotr Waśniowski will give a lecture on low-voltage installations, with particular emphasis on SMATV systems in multi-family buildings. He will also tell about the automation systems used in the Singing Robot. Despite the fact that Polish will be the main language of the event, we welcome foreign guests as well.

Worth reading

Queue management at supermarket checkouts. Appropriate management of queues at supermarket checkouts is extremely important both from the point of view of the customers and the store. It minimizes the waiting time and optimizes the use of checkout points. The DS-2CD7126G0/L-IZS camera from the Hinvision's DeepinView series has a queue management function and can be used to implement this type of projects. After logging in to the camera, the administrator can set up the zone in which the analysis will be performed. During camera configuration it is necessary to specify the maximum number of people who can wait in the defined zone. When the number is exceeded, the alarm event can trigger e.g. sending an email notification or message to the iVMS-4200 monitoring center to inform the staff. In addition, the camera can create statistics that can be used for further analysis... >>>more
Queue management at supermarket checkouts with the use of DS-2CD7126G0/L-IZS cameras.
After the number of people in a zone exceeds a threshold, the camera notifies the staff.
Four-year guaranty for TERRA products