DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 37/2018 (Nov. 19, 2018)

Samsung televisions controlled by thoughts.

The Pontis project was launched by Samsung three months ago. The purpose of the project is to enable people who are completely paralyzed to control their televisions. The main focus is to control some functions of televisions with brain waves. In contrast to the voice control that has been implemented for a long time on the consumer market, the control with "thoughts" would give a lot more possibilities. The project involves the cooperation with Center of Neuroprosthetics of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, and the first test implementations are to take place in hospitals in this country as early as at the beginning of next year.
The first step in creating a brainwave TV software is to collect samples of the behavior of the brain when the user wants to do something, such as choosing a particular movie from the film base. Samsung and the scientists from Lausanne combine indicators from both the eye tracking and the brain scan, and then build the appropriate models using machine learning, so that ultimately the user could choose specific positions using eye movement and brain waves.
(Source: www.cnet.com)
For the system to read the brain waves, the user must wear a 64-sensor cap on their head and be within the range of the eye tracking device. Based on the direction of watching and movement of the user's eyes, the system creates a catalog of video films to which the user will have quick access. In parallel, the engineers are working on a system that will be suitable for people having problems with controlling eyeballs and facial muscles. This one would only use brain waves.
The Pontis project is another building block in creating digital interfaces for the human brain, the subject of dreams of specialists in neuroprosthetics around the world for years. As it is necessary to use a special gel under the sensor cap and the wearing of such cap is rather not a pleasure for an average TV user, they will certainly choose traditional remote controls for a long time yet!

RACK board - vertical mounting system in RACK cabinets.

In September 2018, the management of DIPOL set the following task for the company's Technical Department: Due to the fact that RACK cabinets have become a standard for communication installations in buildings, it is necessary to develop a system for mounting TERRA multiswitch equipment in RACK cabinets.
RACK board allows installers to make use both of the front and side surfaces of 19" RACK cabinets, which are accessible after dismantling the side walls. The solution enables unprecedented volume filling factor of the cabinets, while maintaining good access to all signal distribution devices, with proper ventilation, connection transparency, application of patch panels to connect all inbound and outbound cables. All the features make it easy for technicians to diagnose the network during operation.
The RACK board vertical assembly system is ideal for installing multiswitches, signal amplifiers, splitters etc. in RACK cabinets. The elements of the multiswitch system mounted on ZMB-1-800 panels located on the sides of the cabinet can feed up to 256 subscriber outlets.
Main features of the RACK board vertical mounting system:
  • Predefined installation sets for individual equipment configurations enable simple and quick assembly.
  • RACK board mounting panels allow for installing the equipment items and cables so that the components are placed in a clear and aesthetic way. The longer cables are hidden in the middle part of the cabinet, whereas the connections and the devices are easily available (in opposite to placing such devices horizontally). This improves the equipment cooling and facilitates measurement and adjustment procedures.
  • The RACK board system is a universal solution - originally dedicated for Terra equipment, it can be easily adopted for use in GSM (repeaters), network (routers and switches) and other applications.
  • Because every device in the RACK board system is placed vertically and it does not adhere to any other device or element of the RACK cabinet, it is naturally cooled by the air circulation inside the cabinet.
  • Each device has its own mounting panel and the spaces between devices allow for easy wiring.
  • Hardware components of RACK board system:
    • ZMB series - side assembly components for installing on the side surfaces of large standing cabinets. Currently, we offer panels for mounting in 800 x 600 cabinets.
    • ZMC series - front assembly components that can be installed together with ZMB panels.
    • ZMD series - front assembly components for hanging or standing cabinets (cannot be used with ZMB series due to 19'' width).
  • With the RACK board system, the installer can make use not only of the front of a RACK cabinet (rails with 19" spacing) but also of the side spaces - the access to those devices is obtained by dismantling side walls of the RACK. The ZMB side assembly is mounted (on the left and/or right side) to the front and rear RACK rail. Currently we offer the ZMB-1-800 assembly for 600x800 mm standing RACK cabinets.
  • The installer can use ZMC front-mount assemblies in several versions. They allow for installing in the front part of the cabinet both the 19’’ standard devices but also other equipment mounted on the EURO TH35 rail or on vertical planes.
  • The elements of the RACK board system are made of hard aluminum sheets PA11 (DIN, ISO: AlMg3), powder painted in RAL9004 color. If the prepared mounting holes do not fit the mounted equipment, it is easy to drill new ones.

SD memory card markings.

SD memory cards have markings on their surfaces that tell about their most important parameters. The organization responsible for the standardization of the cards is the union of companies dealing in the production of memory cards - SD Association. Speaking of SD memory cards, the names SD/microSD are usually used. In fact, memory cards with such markings have been replaced by newer SDHC and SDXC formats. Depending on the specifications of a series, there are some limitations concerning the maximum available capacity, and specific file systems are applied/suggested.
Format Maximum capacity [GB] File system
SDHC 32 FAT 32
SDXC 2000 exFAT
The card's capacity and read/write speeds are the most important pieces of information on the media. The capacity is expressed in GB (gigabytes), and along with the development of technology and the emergence of new standards, 6 speed categories have been created.
SanDisk UHS card with minimum serial data writing speed of 30 MB/s
  • Speed class 1: X - after multiplication of the value given on the memory card by 150 kB/s, we obtain the maximum reading speed, e.g. for 800x -> 800 x 150 = 120000 kB/s -> 120 MB/s,
  • Speed class 2: C - the digit after "C" means the minimum sequential writing speed in MB/s. The speed classes: C2, C4, C8, C10;
  • Speed class 3: U - "U" indicates speed class and the presence of a new card communication standard. UHS connectivity is implemented in SDHC and SDXC cards. The speed classes: U1 ("1" inside "U" - the minimum sequential writing speed of 10 MB/s), U3 ("3" inside "U" - 30 MB/s);
  • Speed class 4: UHS-I (UHS-1), UHS-II (UHS-2) - shows the maximum data reading speed, 104 MB/s for UHS-I and 312 MB/s for UHS-2;
  • Speed class 5: V - the number after "V" means the minimum sequential writing speed in MB/s. The speed classes: V6, V10, V30, V60, V90;
  • Speed class 6: A - Application Performance Class - the minimum sustained sequential writing speed is 10 MB/s and class A1 requires a minimum of 1500 reading and 500 writing operations (IOPS) per second, while class A2 requires 4000 and 2000 IOPS, respectively.

Optical fibers in CCTV - multimode or single-mode?

Generally, when selecting the equipment and cables, both the elements have to be compatible. If the connections between cameras and the switch are greater than 2 km, it is necessary to apply single-mode cables. Similarly to situations where one cable should transmit signals from dozens or hundreds of IP cameras. With such a wide band, the use of single-mode fibers should be a more preferred solution. The range of single-mode cables is broader, allowing for the selection of optimum cable, and the transmission line can be extended in the future beyond 2 km, if necessary.
The most popular types of optical cables used in CCTV systems are universal cables with single-mode fibers. The picture shows DRAKA U-DQ(ZN)BH 4E L76004.

Advantages of choosing cables with single-mode fibers:
  • easier choice due to a broader range of the cables on the market
  • ability to transmit signals at distances of tens of kilometers using typical equipment
  • lower prices compared to multimode fibers due to lower production costs
  • higher throughput capacity
  • availability of cables with small bending radius, from 7.5 mm
In the case of single-mode installations, it is important to pay attention to:
  • different versions of fibers may cause problems with splicing, it is recommended to unify the cables in the system
  • in some cases and depending on the equipment it may be necessary to use fiber optic attenuators for short-distance links

Fiber optic transmission windows.

The transmission of data via optical fibers is usually performed in one (or more) "telecom windows" selected from the three (or sometimes even five) wavelength bands that are the most favorable for this purpose. The windows have been selected based on the characteristics of signal attenuation in the transmission medium.
There are three main causes of signal attenuation in optical fibers:
  • wave-guide loss - results from non-uniform, imperfect structure of fibers due to limitations of the production process. It applies to the geometry of the core and non-uniformity of the refractive index in the core and cladding;
  • absorption - light energy absorption by the particles of the fiber; it depends on the method of doping of the core in the manufacturing process and its cleanliness; an increased absorption is caused by chromium, copper, iron atoms and especially by OH- ions (moisture);
  • Rayleigh scattering - consists in scattering light pulse in all directions as a result of inhomogeneous refractive index in the core due small changes in the density or composition of the glass.
The selection of transmission windows has been based on the characteristics of signal attenuation
in the transmission medium caused by the waveguide, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering losses
Individual transmission techniques are implemented in specific telecom windows, e.g. DWDM multiplexing technique mainly uses the third and fourth windows. Thanks to technological advances in the production of optical fibers, it was possible to reduce the effect of OH- ions in the vicinity of the 1400 nm wavelength (G.652D fiber) and create another, the fifth transmission window.

Distribution of HDMI signal to multiple TVs, with control of the source via USB.

The Signal-HD H3613 HDMI to IP converter enables the user to connect a remote (up to 100 m) source of HD content to an HD-enabled television/monitor, using one CAT5e/6 cable. The set includes transmitter and receiver units. USB ports in the units allow for remote control of the source of the signal, e.g. a computer/DVR/NVR etc. by using a mouse or other device.
The IP signal coming from the transmitter of the H3613 set may be applied to an Ethernet switch to split it among multiple receivers. The bit rate of the compressed signal at the output of the transmitter is about 15 Mbps (multicast transmission). The output signals can be properly decoded only by the dedicated H3613R receivers - it cannot be done by network cards/adapters installed in PCs/laptops. The maximum theoretical number of the H3613R receivers and connected televisions/monitors is 253.
HDMI to IP Converter: Signal HD (with USB extender)HDMI to IP Converter: Signal HD (receiver with USB extender)
An application of the H3613 HDMI > IP converter/extender set and additional two H3613R receivers
(point-to-multipoint configuration with an Ethernet switch)

New products offered by DIPOL

Cube IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD2423GO-IW (2MP, 2.8mm, 0.028 lx, IR up to 10m, WiFi, PoE, PIR, video analytics)
Cube IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2423GO-IW K1718 is dedicated for anyone who wants to build cost-effective IP CCTV system. The camera has been equipped with high quality 2 MP CMOS sensor providing perfect video even in low-light conditions and without visible lighting (in IR mode, thanks to the built-in IR illuminator with range up to 10 m, made in EXIR technology). Its intelligent analysis functions include face detection, line crossing detection and detection of intrusion into a defined area. The user can also set up a region of interest (ROI) - part of the image with increased video transmission parameters. The camera has been designed for indoor applications. It can be powered conventionally with 12 VDC or using PoE option (compatibility with 802.3af).
Optical Power Meter GRANDWAY FHP2B04
Optical Power Meter GRANDWAY FHP2B04 L5822 measures optical power loss in fiber networks based on multimode and single-mode fibers. The meter is calibrated to measure optical power at six wavelengths (nm): 850, 1300, 1310, 1490, 1550, and 1625. A wide measuring range (-50...+26 dBm) and high accuracy (not worse than +/-5% / 10 nW) allow for precise control of any optical network. Aside from the direct measurements of the optical power (in mW and dBm), it is also possible to set 0 dB reference level.
EAP System Controller: TP-Link Omada Cloud Controller OC200
EAP System Controller TP-Link Omada Cloud Controller OC200 N2560 has been created to centrally manage a whole network of devices from the EAP series. Features such as real-time monitoring of traffic statistics and their analysis through built-in data visualization tools, guest authentication via the captive portal, system upgrading and restarting, and easy network scaling - will help manage the WiFi network.

Worth reading

HDMI to IP Converter/Extender for conference rooms. Signal-HD HDMI to IP converter/extender H3621 enables the user to connect remote (up to 100 m) source of HD content to HD-enabled television/monitor/projector, using one CAT5e/6 cable. The set includes transmitter and receiver units. The transmitter and receiver units should be mounted in electrical boxes (minimum depth of 80 mm)... >>>more
Designing SMATV systems with SatNet software from TERRA
SatNet 3.0 software has received the Award of the Ministry of Economy
for the most innovative product or technology presented at the Elektrotechnika 2014 fair