DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 18/2013 (April 29, 2013)

3D images from up to 1 km.

A team of Scotland-based physicists, led by professor Gerald Buller, developed a new method for creating 3D images. Using the already known ToF technique (Time of Flight) and a low-power infrared laser beam, the scientists obtained three-dimensional images of objects located even 1 kilometer away from the recording equipment. The existing systems allow for mapping objects only in the immediate vicinity of a scanner.
UHF TV antenna: DIPOL 11/21-69 (11-element)
The results of the scientists from Edinburgh - 3D mapping of a person standing 325 meters away.
The problem with the mapping of the face should soon be resolved.
The operating principle is based on the measurement of the "times of flight" of photons reflected by the mapped object. The light source is a laser generating a beam of infrared light with a wavelength of 1560 nm. The light reflected from the object enters the scanner which calculates the times and provides the data to a computer system. The sensor is very sensitive - it can measure the times of single photons. Appropriate software performs the necessary calculations and generates an image of the scanned object with millimeter precision.
Although there are slightly more accurate systems, they cannot scan objects at so long distances. The new method developed by the Scots can find a wide range of applications like scanning the growth of crops, monitoring movement of the rock mass and warning of other threats that can be detected in this way. ToF technique provides an ideal compromise between image resolution, range of measurement, time of image rendering and energy consumption. The low-power and invisible light beam with 1560 nm wavelength is safe for humans and living organisms, and its generation requires a relatively small amount of energy. The negative impact of the attenuation caused by the atmosphere and interference from other light sources (mainly sunlight) have been minimized.
Basically, the system is ready to use, but the scientists are still working on its improvement. Small objects with low reflectivity are not properly recognized. For example, human faces are shown as black spots. In parallel, the researches are working on the introduction of the option of measuring the speed of moving objects. So far, the main obstacle is insufficient computing power of the PC platform used. Further plans also include miniaturization of the systems and increase of the range up to 10 km.

The application of a fiber optic stripper.

The stripper is a basic tool of any installer of fiber optic systems. It is used for the proper preparation of the fiber before cleaving. The preparation involves the removal of the buffer and other external layers of the fiber optic cable.
The fiber is covered with two or three protective layers. The fiber core that should be spliced has a diameter of 125 microns. To reach the core, the installer has to remove the outer layers of 3 mm, 900 microns, and 250 microns. Each stripper has two or three openings allowing for precise removal of the protective layers. The tools equipped with two holes can remove the 900- and 250-micron layers simultaneously. It is worth mentioning that single-mode and multimode fibers are prepared in the same way, so the same stripper can be used for all typical cables.

Selection of optical nodes for distribution of television signals.

Optical fiber is becoming an increasingly popular medium for transmission of television signals. The main advantages of this method of transmission include long range and exceptional resistance to influences of any kind, especially lightning surges.
Optical node is a device used to convert optical signals into electrical signals and vice versa (return channel), which allows the transmission in the forward direction (towards the subscriber) and in reverse direction (from the subscriber to the service provider) - the latter option is used for broadband access to the Internet. The selection of a suitable optical node should be based on the system requirements and analysis of a number of parameters:
  • sensitivity of the optical input - the higher sensitivity the easier implementation of the network; lower input signal levels allow for longer optical links and/or splitting the signal from the transmitter into a larger number of paths,
  • maximum output level at the electrical output - directly affects the size of copper installations not requiring the use of additional amplifiers; devices with output level higher than 110 dBuV allow for distribution of the signal in large distribution networks,
  • power supply - 230 VAC (individual) or 24-65 VAC (remote),
  • possibility of remote configuration and monitoring - more advanced models can be remotely managed and monitored by a dedicated software or using the SNMP protocol.
Terra series of optical receivers/nodes:
Name OD-002 OD-003 OD-120 OD-200P OD-010R62
Code R81726 R81728 R81724 R81722 R817272
Output frequency range [MHz] 47-862 47-1002 47-862 47/75/87-862 


Sensitivity [dBm] -7...2  -10...-3  -7...2   -7...2  -7...2 
Max. output level [dBμV] 106 80 113 114 106
Return channel
Remote management
The ideal devices for cooperation with the optical receivers/nodes are optical transmitters of Terra MOS-211 series e.g. TERRA MOS-211A R81720.

Powering cameras through twisted-pair cables.

Due to the low installation cost, twisted-pair cables are often used to transmit analog video signals. The price difference compared to conventional CCTV cables with power wires is the greater, the longer the transmission paths are. Since the systems based on twisted pair cables involve the need for additional components (video baluns), the difference is blurred is the case of small systems.
On the other hand, when the cameras are not powered locally there is a problem with power supply. The distance at which it is possible to supply a camera with 12 VDC via UTP/FTP cable is very limited. Due to the fact that the diameter of the copper wires in cat.5e cable is about 0.5 mm, the cross sectional area is about 0.2 mm2. So, the area is 2.5 times smaller than in the case of the thinnest wires of CCTV cables (0.5 mm2). With a maximum voltage drop of 1 V and the typical current consumption of a camera (0.5 A), the maximum distance at which it is possible to power the camera is only 11 meters. It can be doubled by connecting in parallel two wires of two pairs (or even tripled by using all 6 wires for power supply, 3 and 3). In any case the total current that flows via UTP/FTP cable cannot exceed 1 A.
Video Transmitter-Receiver Set: 1VAP (BNC, DC-2.1/5.5)
Stabilized Power Supply ZK-65 (11.4-13.2VDC, 9x0.5A)
The video transmitter/receiver set Etrix 1VAP M16659 transmits video (using baluns) and power from a single source via a twisted-pair cable. The stabilized power supply ZK-65 M18294 with adjustable output voltage (11.4-13.2 VDC) can solve the problem of too short range. By increasing the output voltage to 13 V, the maximum distance can be doubled.

Optimal choice of an NVR.

NUUO Titan NVRs are innovative plug & play standalone/ RACK-mount devices designed for full management of IP CCTV system. To select and configure an NVR for operation in an IP CCTV system, one has to decide on the three basic issues:
  • number of cameras in the IP CCTV system
  • unmanned or manned operation
  • data retention period
Network Video Recorder: NUUO NVR Titan NT-4040(R)
Network Video Recorder: NUUO NVR Titan NT-8040(R) (max 64ch)
NUUO NVR Titan NT-4040(R)
NUUO NVR Titan NT-8040(R)
When the system is to be controlled by an operator, the better choice is the model K4804 that can simultaneously display images from 4 IP cameras, providing 1080p video at 25 fps via its DVI/HDMI output. Additionally, it allows for two-way audio transmission. If, however, one of the main purposes of a medium-sized system is its unmanned operation and the data retention requirement does not exceed 2-3 weeks, the preferred choice would be the K4204 model.
The table below lists other differences between the Titan NVRs:
Model NT-4040 NT-8040R
Code K4204 K4804
CPU Intel® Atom™ D525 (1M Cache, 1.80 GHz) Intel® Core™ i5-2400 (6M Cache, 3.40 GHz)
HDD bays
USB/SATA connectors
6 x USB 2.0
1 x eSATA (DAS)
2 x USB3.0,
2 x USB2.0,
1 x eSATA (DAS)

Wireless routers for sharing (really) broadband Internet access (60 Mbps or more).

With the development of broadband access technology, Internet service providers offer 30 Mbps, 60 Mbps, or even 120 Mbps download speeds.
To make use of the high bandwidths in home wireless networks it is necessary to use wireless routers equipped with the appropriate access points. The still popular devices operating in the 802.11b/g standard (theoretically up to 54 Mbps) are capable of achieving real transfers up to the level of 23-24 Mbps. This is not optimal solution for faster Internet connections. They will be supported more effectively by 802.11n devices, from the simplest 150 Mbps implementations with single antennas (real transfers up to 60 Mbps) to the highly-efficient MIMO devices with theoretical limit of 300 Mbps (real transfers up to 120 Mbps).
It is worth mentioning that the efficiency of a router equipped with wireless AP depends also on the number of antennas, type and clock speed of the CPU, the amount of internal memory.
The following table shows the best routers equipped with high-speed wireless access points, suitable for broadband Internet links:
Name TL-MR3420 TL-WR841N TL-WR1043ND TL-WDR4300
Code N2957 N3250 N3253 N3260
WLAN standard
300 Mb/s
2.4 GHz
300 Mb/s
2.4 GHz
300 Mb/s
2.4 GHz
300/450 Mb/s
2.4 /5 GHz
MIMO 2T2R 2T2R 3T3R 3T3R
USB Yes No Yes Yes
New products offered by DIPOL:
Subscriber Terminal Outlet: Alcad BM-100 (FM&DAB/TV, flush)
Flat Panel Wall Mount: Signal (26
Subscriber Terminal Outlet
Alcad BM-100
Flat Panel Wall Mount
Signal LCD-M03, motorized
Web Smart Switch
TL-SG2216 16xGE 2xSFP
Worth reading:
How to maximize the capabilities of home routers? Thanks to alternative software available on the Internet, many Wi-Fi routers can provide extended functionality. For example, the software may transform home router into NAS and print servers, increase forwarding performance, provide advanced analytical options... more
Home wireless network based on TP-LINK devices
Multiswitch SMATV system in a 5-staircase building. The requirements for the building installations included SMATV system providing each outlet with DVB-T and SAT signals (from a single Hot Bird position)... more
View of the project of the SMATV system designed with the use of free TERRA SatNet utility
Discreet IP camera. Implementing video surveillance systems, many investors pay a lot of attention to the small size of the cameras. Smaller devices can be more easily integrated into the environment, especially in the case of indoor systems. For IP solutions, we can recommend megapixel IP dome camera Sunell SN-IPC54/14EDN K1698 with diameter of 100 mm and height of 53 mm. Its Sony Exmor image sensor with a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels can operate without visible light, providing much more detail than CMOS imagers... more
Sunell SN-IPC54/14EDN 2MP IP camera with Exmor imager, supporting ONVIF protocol, diameter of 10 cm - K1698

Patch Cord (made to order)