Internet and missiles hitting targets.
"Other 3 billion" - it's the part of the world's population that the entrepreneur Greg Wyler wants to make a profit on. He intends to provide Internet access mainly in the southern hemisphere, particularly in Africa and South America, with the help of serious investors: Google, HSBC, Development Bank of Southern Africa, SES World Skies, Liberty Global, Allen and Company, Northbridge Venture Partners, Soroof International, Sofina oraz Satya Capital. To emphasize the results to be achieved, the company coordinating the implementation of the project has been named "O3b Networks" (Other 3 Billion Networks).
"O3b Networks" will provide the Internet with the use of satellites. In the first half of 2013 there should be eight satellites, then the number will be increased to 16. The cost of constructing and launching the satellites is estimated at $1.2 billion.
The constellation of satellites forming the backbone of O3b Networks
The new network will be connected to the global Internet and other operators in eight communication centers. The signal from the satellites will be delivered mainly to local operators. The operators, using wireless technology (e.g. WiMAX, 3G) and short-range wired networks, will distribute it to the end users. So, it will not require expensive equipment installed at the users' sites, or building expensive infrastructure in difficult terrain.
The satellites are be located at an altitude of 8000 km (about 4 times lower than that of geostationary satellites), which will considerably decrease latency.
The coverage map of O3b Networks service
O3b Networks project is another initiative to launch consumer communications system based on artificial satellites. So far, each of the two largest projects, Globalstar and Iridium, suffered a spectacular economic disaster. The Globalstar investors lost about $3 billion, the Iridium investors about $5 billion. However, another group of investors who purchased the bankrupt Iridium system for 25 million dollars, made a good deal.
Modern war requires accurate positioning systems (GPS, Glonass) and secure communication means. The cooperation between the new owners of the Iridium system and the Pentagon was so successful that it has been decided to build Iridium NEXT. 72 satellites that will replace the currently functioning system are planned to be deployed in orbit between 2015 - 2017, for a cost of about $3 billion.
When to use wireless video monitoring systems?
The vast majority of installers doesn't have much conviction about using wireless transmission means in CCTV monitoring. Their concerns are usually unfounded. Today's wireless systems provide stable operation without delay in video transmission.
Interrelation between the cost of a link and its length for different transmission media.
Over 2 km, the cost of the radio link jumps a little due to the necessity of using
a more powerful wireless set, e.g. CAM5816h 5.8 GHz M1558
with range up to 3 km.
Comparing the prices of equipment and the costs of coaxial and twisted pair cables, one may arrive at a conclusion that wireless systems become cheaper than wired solutions when the distance between the camera and DVR reaches about 500 m.
Another advantage of wireless video transmission, even in the case of shorter distances, is visible in the following example of monitoring a shop. The owner wanted the coverage of his entire entrance and shop window, which was only possible by placing the camera on the wall of the opposite building across the street. The administrator of that property consented to the installation of the equipment, but the problem was to drag the cable over or under the street. It was easily solved by using the outdoor A/V transmission system TCO5807h M1559
operating at 5.8 GHz, providing image quality identical to that of a wired connection.
Using a wireless video link to overcome specific local barriers -
the application of A/V transmission system TCO5807h M1559
The use of wireless transmission greatly simplified the installation process and helped to avoid many lengthy procedures for obtaining a permit to install the wires that would have been necessary without using wireless technology.
When implementing wireless video monitoring link(s), the installer should remember about/that:
- the necessity of line-of-sight (LOS) between the Tx and Rx antennas,
- the possibility of serial connections between neighboring point-to-point links in order to get a greater range of transmission or to overcome the "no LOS" problem by creating an intermediate/relay point,
- the M1558 and M1559 sets can operate on several non-overlapping video (and audio) channels, so the system may incorporate a number of the wireless links,
- the sets are compatible with all analog (PAL) cameras.
Semiprofessional DVB-S-PAL headend in a small hotel.
A customer asked the installer to design and implement a simple TV system in his hotel with 24 rooms. Because the hotel was located in an area with very low terrestrial TV signals, the only sensible and economic solution was to build a system based on standard satellite receivers and a set of professional modulators. In addition to the reception of several TV channels in each of the hotel rooms, the owner required to bring the satellite signals to the front desk and dining room, where the larger TV sets should have access to HD programming.
The diagram of the hotel TV system
The system was based on a set of professional twin VSB modulators TERRA mt420 R82515
powered by dedicated AC/DC adapter DR-60-12 R82532
. All the components were mounted on the DIN rail bracket R82538
placed in the R912021
RACK cabinet, along with other system elements. The three mt420 units distribute six satellite channels to the guestrooms. Their output level of 90 dBuV is sufficient for bringing the highest quality signals to all the 24 outlets located in the rooms.
The satellite signals from the Terra MSR-908 R70608
multiswitch are fed to 6 receivers Ferguson Ariva 102 A99370
. The two other multiswitch outputs are used to deliver satellite signals to the reception and dining room, each equipped with satellite receiver for a pay-TV platform. The pay-TV provides a variety of channels, including high definition broadcasts.
The whole system uses Triset-113 E1015
coaxial cable and PCT compression connectors: F E80340
, RCA E80450
, IEC E3005
How to extend multimode transmission range?
In connection with the relocation of the headquarters, a company was forced to extend the fiber optic link connecting the old head office with the warehouse. The old headquarters was located about 1 km from the warehouse. Due to the small distance the owner decided to use a multimode optical fiber at that time. After changing the location, the distance increased to 10 km.
The investor had two options:
- to build private optical link in a leased underground telecommunication conduit,
- to lease out 2 single-mode optical fibers with ends available at the older and the new localizations of the headquarters.
The company chose the latter solution, due to a lower cost and shorter time of implementation. To convert the optical signal from the multimode line to the form needed for the single-mode line and vice versa, they bought ULTIMODE MT-202G 1310 L1573
media converter, with throughput of Gbps.
Optic link connecting the new office with the warehouse
A universal camera with Effio-E image sensor.
DIPOL has introduced a new camera equipped with 1/3'' Sony Exview HAD II CCD having horizontal resolution of 650 TVL (color) and the latest Sony Effio-E digital signal processor - M11284
. This is the type of camera that is especially sought-after by professionals. Controlled by OSD menu, it has universal 2.8-12 mm varifocal lens and IR illuminator with range up to 30 m. The components placed in compact housing provide an excellent solution for monitoring square and street space, parking lots, houses fronts.
The operation in these environments, with very changeable light conditions and often with some additional requirements, is facilitated by two functions - privacy masks and DWDR. Privacy masks are used to block the view of private space, such as the windows of buildings. DWDR function significantly broadens the dynamic range of the scene that can be exactly reproduced by the camera, from very dark to very bright fragments. Below a minimum ambient light (the threshold is adjustable), the camera switches into B/W mode and turns on the IR illuminator.
Mobile access to IP CCTV systems.
Digifort software packages K3001
enable remote access to the resources of IP CCTV systems from mobile phones / PDAs / tablets with 3G access to the Internet. With this functionality, the user can monitor the protected areas from anywhere in the world (with 3G connectivity) and react to any situation.
Video presenting the configuration of iPhone and the possibilities offered by the software
The user(s) can perform various operations directly on/from their mobile device(s), such as:
- online monitoring of cameras,
- capturing and saving screenshots,
- PTZ control using touch screen or keys,
- managing various devices integrated with Digifort system (lights, sirens, gates, doors etc.)
Fully functional trial versions of Digifort software (Explorer, Standard, Professional, Enterprise) are available here
. The application for iPhones can be downloaded from iTunes. After installing iDigifort, the configuration includes registration of the Digifort server/NVR, i.e. entering its name, IP address, port, user name and password. From now on, the user of the IPhone can expoit all the features offered by the software.
How does DDNS work?
Computers (hosts) on the Internet are seen in the form of numeric IP addresses, e.g. 18.104.22.168. Remembering multiple IP addresses in this form is difficult, that's why DNS (Domain Name System) provides possibility of using "normal" names. This means that there is no need to keep in mind the address 22.214.171.124, but it is sufficient to remember www.dipol.com.pl. Translation of the domain name into the set of numbers is performed by the appropriate DNS server, to which the user's computer sends the request for the translation of the address. After receiving the response with the numeric address, the computer connects to the relevant computer/server.
If we wish to run a server for website hosting or accessing CCTV camera, available from any Internet location and we don't have a static IP address but a dynamic one supplied by DHCP server (typically by ADSL service), we have to use DDNS (Dynamic Domain Name System) service.
Similarly to DNS server, it provides a database containing relations between domain and numeric addresses, but this database may be updated on request by the domain owner. Thanks to this feature, the server is available in the domain address regardless of its actual IP number. This allows a client computer to communicate with the server only with the domain name which is translated and updated by the DDNS server.
New products offered by DIPOL:
19'' Fiber Optic Box
ULTIMODE MT-024 L5024
Fiber Optic Splice Tray
ULTIMODE P-21 L5521
Stabilized PS ZK-65
(11.4...13.2V, 9x0.5A) M18294
DR120-12 12V, 10A M1836
Amplification of digital and analog TV signals.
The signal levels of digital terrestrial television are typically lower by 10-20 dB compared with analog signals. This fact is of great importance to the work of broadband amplifiers.
When a broadband amplifier gets at least two carriers, it generates a number of intermodulation products, in addition to the desired signals. There is a significant risk that the intermodulation products will interfere with channels occupied by digital multiplexes. Given the much lower signal levels of the digital channels, the effect of using the amplifier can be a complete lack of digital television...
How to measure the loss of optical fiber?
Using the optical power meter PM-212 L5812
, we do it in two steps. First, we connect the meter to a suitable light source (for example - Ethernet media converter M-203G L11025
) via the L3211
patch cord and set the measured power level as the 0 dB reference. The next measurement we perform at the end of the fiber link, after connecting to its input the same light source, having the readout in respect to the reference value.
Measurement of the path loss of the optical link
CCTV camera resistant to overexposure.
Digital Pixel System (DPS) technology has been developed and patented by Pixim company. The DPS technology sets the exposure for each pixel in the sensor individually, depending on light intensity. So, each pixel is a kind of a separate A/C converter, which allows for well-balanced image, especially in the case of high contrasts and light intensity in some parts of the scene.
Cameras based on this technology perform well in difficult lighting conditions. An example is Sunell SN-BXC0586DCN(II) M11207
based on Pixim Seawolf image sensor. The biggest advantages of the new WDR camera (wide dynamic range) are: significantly higher sensitivity, capability of working against the light, and 3DDNR digital noise reduction...
In the DPS sensor (on the right) each pixel can be treated as a separate unit
with consideration of the actual exposure
Instructional video on terminating fiber with ULTIMODE FAST connector