DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 14/2009 (April 6, 2009)
CCTV - facial recognition systems. Facial recognition has been found as one of the most promising means to identify people by biometric methods - facial images are easy to obtain, as opposed to fingerprints or iris images, which require active participation of the screened person. The advantages of face recognition technology also include: similarity to standard means of recognizing people by comparing their photos, availability of large collections of pictures (including pictures of criminals and terrorists), economy (ease and speed of execution), and non-invasive character of the method (as opposed to, for example, when identifying a person via retina pattern).
Moreover, it is much easier to obtain large databases of faces, as they are created on the basis of pictures used in various types of documents: identity cards, passports, driving licenses, etc. The advantage of identification based on facial features in comparison with fingerprinting or other biometric methods also lies in the mentioned "invisibility" for the person being scrutinized. The lack of direct contact with the data collection device allows to preserve the anonymity of the operations. In practice, facial recognition is limited to the acquisition of facial image - the system automatically analyzes the image and decides whether the person is listed in the database. The only condition is that the person is in the range of operation - usually in the field of view of a camera. The main components of the system are the camera/s (face scanner/s) and software for comparing facial images stored is databases, integrated with efficient hardware platform.
Problems in creating effective face recognition systems arise from the need to take into account the changes resulting from facial expression and make-up, and adverse effects of lighting, position etc. (the need for standardizing, scaling and rotating the images). When creating software for the analysis of facial features, one should also include anthropological features, because each race has individual characteristics (characteristic points that should be taken into account).

In August 2008, the UK government began to test such a system at Manchester Airport. ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) recommends introduction of biometric passports with digital pictures as the basic means of identification. Bundesdruckerei GmbH (one of the world's leading suppliers of high-security technology solutions and products) and Samsung Mobile Display announced partnership to introduce electronic passports, ID cards, driving licenses and other ID documents with AMOLED displays (active matrix displays with organic LEDs). In the future it will allow to integrate short videos into any ID document, including sequences of three-dimensional images of the owner's face (e.g. in left profile, through frontal view, up to the right).

Analysis of the images used in biometrics requires assembly and processing of huge amounts of data, and their protection against unauthorized access - it is another pivot point of security industry, CCTV, telecommunications and information technology.
Intensive research on face features analysis is conducted by Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, a German research organization grouping 58 institutes, including the owner of the MP3 patent.
The picture shows a system for the analysis of the face, allowing to identify the gender and mood of the people, presented at CeBIT 2009.
Morocco - the charm of contrasts. Maghreb countries are typical examples of places where cable networks do not have a future. Extensive areas, deserts and rarely populated regions seem meant for wireless technology. The domination of this technology is visible in reception of satellite television, in telephone communications, and access to the Internet.

A photo report: "Morocco - the Charm of Contrasts"
Morocco - the Charm of Contrasts
In search for good TV reception, people give free rein to their imagination,
creating true works of antenna art
Morocco - the Charm of Contrasts
Morocco - the Charm of Contrasts
Modernity and tradition. A small house of a potter in Safi and traditional dye-works in Fez,
based on medieval methods, contrast with modern satellite antennas.
We encourage you to see other photo essays:
Important features of modern satellite receiver. Home video collections on HDDs based on TV programs and films broadcast by satellite channels become increasingly popular. Therefore, an important feature of a modern sat receiver is the ability to connect an external USB drive. It is fulfilled by the Technisat DVB-S2 DIGIT HD8-S A99065.
This digital HDTV receiver has been equipped with two integrated card readers (1x smartcard / 1x SIM) and two Common Interfaces (CI). Ethernet interface allows to connect DIGIT HD8-S receiver to the home network. USB connectors and SD card reader enable the user to play music or view pictures. DIGIT HD8-SX has been also equipped with HDMI and component (YUV) outputs. The receiver allows to watch satellite SDTV / HDTV broadcasts (MPEG 2 / MPEG 4 / H2.64) and listen to radio channels.

Interfaces and connectors:
  • 1 x CONAX card reader (smartcard) for Pay-TV/ Pay-Radio
  • 1 x CONAX card reader (SIM) for encrypted channels
  • 2 x Common Interface (CI) for other CA modules
  • 2 x USB 2.0
  • 2 x SCART
  • 1 x SD card reader
  • 1 x Ethernet
  • 1 x HDMI (HDCP)
  • 1 x YUV (component)
  • Dolby AC3 (1 x optical, 1 x coaxial)
DVB-S2 Receiver: TechniSat DIGIT HD8-S (LAN, USB, SD)
DVB-S2 Receiver: TechniSat DIGIT HD8-S (LAN, USB, SD)
Front and rear panel of the DVB-S2 DIGIT HD8-S HD LAN USB SD A99065 receiver
One of the ways of connecting the receiver to a home antenna system is available here.
You may also find useful other diagrams.
IP camera for special tasks - superior quality, IR illuminator up to 100 m. P428 K1136 camera is an outdoor all-year-round device from Pixord. The camera module (with detachable lens) has been placed in watertight IP66, aluminum housing equipped with 230VAC/12 VDC adapter, heater and fan. The latter elements ensure reliable operation even in extreme weather conditions - they switch on and off automatically to maintain proper internal temperature.
P428 has been equipped with 1/3'' CCD 540TVL from Sony (Day/Night) and IR filter. The camera can operate in color or B/W mode (adjustable threshold) with IR illumination (range up to 100m). The included auto iris lens has variable focal length - from 7.5 to 50 mm.
The camera can use M-JPEG or MPEG-4 compression. Real-time transmission can be performed with D1 resolution (720 x 576) at 25 fps.
The camera can be configured and operated through Internet browser. It supports RTSP protocol, allowing to view images with popular multimedia players like Quick Time Player, VLC etc.
The included P6032 software (OEM license) allows to view live video and record images from up to 32 channels. Pixord cameras can also be managed by commercial IP CCTV software from Milestone, NUUO, D3Data, Griffid and many other producers.
Outdoor IP Camera: PiXORD P428
PiXORD P428 K1136 suitable for operation
in any weather and environment
Megapixel cameras in hybrid CCTV system in Sheraton Hotel in Dallas. One of the largest hotels in Dallas has recently completed a major renovation. It also included the expansion of the existing CCTV system. Since the building is very big (1842 rooms), the only sensible solution could be based on IP technology. Additionally, IP solution makes it possible to record megapixel images, which is of great importance in the identification of persons and events.
48 existing analog cameras have been connected to the new system through three 16-channel ACTI video servers. There have been added 48 dome cameras of 1.3 Mpx resolution (indoor - K1314, outdoor - K1313).
The images from all cameras are recorded with three 32-channel recording servers managed by NUUO software. This surveillance software allows to manage the whole system, operate any number of the connected cameras and playback any archives from the servers. In addition to high stability, the surveillance suite provides advanced functions typical of intelligent systems - image analysis module enables the system to react to events or changes like motion, leaving or removing objects, loss of sharpness, covering a camera, as well as allows to perform bidirectional object counting. The NUUO NVR software has been integrated with 40 door sensors (access control), with the use of I/O extensions.

The monitoring system shows that IP packet transmission allows to build modern, multifunctional CCTV solutions, ensuring integration of access control, alarm and fire protection systems.
Surveillance Management Software: NUUO SCB-IP+321.3 Mpix Dome Camera: ACTi ACM-74111.3 Mpix IP Dome Camera: ACTi ACM-3401Video Server: ACTi ACD-2200 (4-ch + MPEG-4 audio)
Diagram of the monitoring system in Sheraton Hotel
Use of "Repeater" mode in TP-LINK TL-WA501G N2940 APs. With range problems, one can use the "Repeater" function, available in some Access Points .
In Repeater (or Regenerator) mode the device is set to receive the signal and transmit it further. This feature is most commonly used in buildings, in order to provide better signal coverage of the whole building. In this mode, Access Point can achieve only 50% of its maximum capacity.
Below - the way of increasing range of wireless link with the use of TP-LINK TL-WA501G N2940 AP in "Repeater" mode.
High Power Wireless USB Adapter: TP-LINK TL-WN422G<br />(2.4GHz, 54Mbps, external antenna connector - SMA R/P) Access Point: TP-Link TL-WA501G <br />(AP/APC/WDS 2.4GHz, eXtended Range)Wireless Router: TP-Link TL-WR542G  - eXtended Range<br />(with 4-port switch)
The way of increasing range with AP in "Repeater" mode
Efficient wireless networks based on ULTIAIR devices - part 1. When creating the backbone of a wireless network it is worth at the outset to estimate the maximum number of WLAN nodes and plan their deployment. The aim is to determine the maximum transfers that will be occurring at the nodes and links.
Prior to installing the equipment, one should design the network, taking into consideration:
  • layout of the network,
  • locations of base stations,
  • expected locations of client stations,
  • selection of antennas for base stations adequate for the expected locations of clients (antenna gain and beam shape),
  • selection of antennas for client stations (antenna gain - depending on distance, kind and length of antenna cable, sensitivity and output power of the WLAN card).
The most practical and efficient configuration of wireless link is point-to-point connection. This configuration can obtain the maximum feasible data transfers up to 23 Mbps. Such links allow to build high capacity backbones. For example, the network containing three routes of this type (diagram below) can achieve a real transfer of up to 70 Mbps. Use of directional antennas reduces interference caused by other wireless networks operating within the area. This has a significant impact on the stability of the network.
Another advantage of such systems is easy configuration. Each link operates on a selected channel, depending on the direction of transmission. Directional antennas used at the base station can be independently adjusted as to the direction and angle of inclination, depending on the location of client antennas cooperating with IP cameras or other IP devices.
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KCWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KCWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 419KCWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 419KCWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 419KCWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KCULTIAIR
Example wireless network based on point-to-point links
The only drawback of this solution is a greater cost in relation to point-to-multipoint scheme which will be covered in a future issue of the Newsletter.
Courses organized by DIPOL have reached their halfway point. The spring series of the courses is in the middle. Of particular interest is the course on SMATV systems: "Designing large SMATV systems based on TERRA multiswitches and MMH-3000 headend". It uses free SatNet utility. So far, the course was carried out in Krakow, Warsaw, Lodz, and Wroclaw. After introduction of the subject matter, the participants could use their computers for designing a 60-outlet multiswitch system, being assisted by the instructor. For a given set of initial data, the program allowed to determine signal levels and see characteristics of the system in various points.
Modern methods of recording and reproducing video signals from CCTV cameras have been the subject of a CCTV course: "ULTISYSTEM - integration of analog cameras, IP devices and megapixel cameras - modern video surveillance in cities. ULTIMAX DVRs". Presentation of the potential of ULTIMAX DVRs and ULTISYSTEM NVR was supported by live transmission of megapixel images from Gdansk and Krakow (Poland), and Florida, USA. The observer on behalf of the manufacturer of ULTIMAX DVRs - HIKVISION - was Tom Lee.
The hit turned out to be the course on building efficient wireless links for transmitting video surveillance data - "ULTIAIR - efficient wireless data transmission in IP CCTV systems - how to design the network and program the devices". The participants could perform on their own the configuration of the links and examine the impact of various parameters on their performance and safety.
The demonstration of the video surveillance system in Tvrdosin, which employs 8 megapixel cameras and is run on the wireless links built with ULTIAIR devices, was overwhelmingly convincing the participants of excellent performance of the devices. Another subject of the course was configuration of the equipment as HotSpots operating in 2.4 and 5 GHz bands and supporting up to 200 users.
Training courses are held in Polish (for details - in Polish - choose "Polski" in the upper right corner of that page), but we would like to invite you to take advantage of some courses available in English and published on our website (listed below on that page).
We have written about:

9-cable system - multiswitch installations. The most flexible multiswitch installations in multi-story buildings are based on 9-cable system (signals from two Quatro LNBs and terrestrial TV antenna). On each floor we employ the splitter providing signals to multiswitches. It allows to shape the network according to actual requirements - we may deploy practically unlimited number of outlets...
- archive DWR of Jan. 14, 2008

How to use wireless connectivity to develop the network at home or office. Internet access is nowadays indispensable at home and office. It can be easily distributed among many users by wireless means, using TP-LINK devices...
- archive DWR of Sept. 8, 2008

How to use wireless connectivity to extend the network. ... Applications of TP-LINK devices in several buildings...
- archive DWR of Jan. 19, 2009

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