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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 18/2016 (May 2, 2016)
Samsung's patent for augmented reality. Samsung may be working on the construction of new, smart contact lenses. They constitute the basis for the company's vision on the new field of devices for augmented reality systems. Such computerized contact lenses would be equipped with miniaturized screens superimposing digital images onto the real ones. The interaction with the digital objects could be accessed by batting the eyelids or through eye movements. The content would be provided by a connected smartphone. Having been connected via low energy wireless link, the smartphone would process the data and update the displayed information in real time. The antenna and other equipment could be placed in the area of the contact lens outside the pupil and iris range, so as not to obscure the view. Their size would have to be microscopic. For example, the thickness of the lens of a built-in camera could be 14 nm or even less.
An evocation of the smart Samsung's contact lens
In a few years, the value of the global AR/VR market will probably exceed one hundred billion US$. Therefore, the competition in the industry also seems to grow quickly. Other giants (Microsoft, Google) are working on glasses. The advantage of such contact lenses would be higher image quality and better viewing angles, especially of the superimposed digital images. In contrast, the biggest difficulty is the problem of power supply and continuous communication with the smartphone. Maybe a solution would be small photo-voltaic cells (assuming lens diameter ca. 14 mm) plus further development of extremely low energy wireless connections.
H.264 compression levels. All Sunell IP cameras can generate several video data streams with different parameters. The change of some parameters allows for the adjustment of the streams to the throughput capacity of the link and NVR. Typically, cameras generate two streams, one with higher quality and second with lower parameters.
The menus of the cameras enable users to select appropriate levels of video compression, depending on applications:
  • Base Profile - primarily intended for applications with the lowest use of the coder/decoder, dedicated e.g. for mobile phones usually having limited computing power of their processors.
  • Main Profile - used for standard-definition imaging, e.g. on tablets, netbooks, low-cost PCs etc.
  • High Profile - dedicated for monitoring within local networks and for high-definition video recording. The compression is more effective than in the case of Main Profile (file size ca. 10% smaller for the same quality), but it requires the highest processing power.
Stream Configuration window in Sunell IP cameras
Video monitoring of an apartment house based on Sunell IP cameras and Hikvision NVR. The diagram of the IP CCTV system in an apartment building, based on Sunell IP cameras and Hikvision NVR is presented below. The building is monitored by ten K1678 IP cameras (2 MP, 0.05 lx @ F1,2, dWDR, IP66, 2.8-12 mm adjustable focal length, IR range up to 50 m) mounted around it, and with six K1627 IP cameras (2 MP, IK08, 2.8 mm lens, IR range up to 7 m) placed inside the entrances to the staircases. This layout of the cameras allows for the identification of the people around the building and entering it, including potential vandals etc. All the cameras are powered from the N29986 16-port PoE switch.
The video streams from the cameras are recorded by the K22161 16-channel NVR equipped with two M89285 hard drives, each with 3 TB capacity. The M3022 monitor connected to the NVR is used for live viewing of the images from the cameras and for the analysis of the recordings. After connecting the system to the Internet via the N3253 wireless router/AP and forwarding its ports, the access to the system is possible within the Wi-Fi network range or from anywhere via the Internet. The connections between the system components have been made with the use of the E1408 CAT 5e UTP cable.
Vandal-proof Mini-dome IP Camera: Sunell SN-IPV54/04ZDR/B (2MP, 2.8mm, 0.05 lx, IK08, IR up to 7m)HDD Western Digital PURPLE WD30PURX 3TB (3.5Compact IP Camera: Sunell SN-IPR54/04AYDN/M (2MP, 2.8-12mm, 0.05 lx, IR up to 50m)IP NVR Hikvision DS-7616NI-E2/A (16ch, 100Mbps, 2xSATA, VGA, HDMI, ALARM IN/OUT)22Access Point TP-Link TL-WR1043ND (w. router & GbE switch, 802.11n, 300Mbps)PoE Switch: ULTIPOWER 2216af (16xRJ45/PoE-802.3af, 2xRJ45-GbE/2xSFP), managed
Video monitoring of an apartment house based on Sunell IP cameras and Hikvision NVR
DVB-T amplifiers in (S)MATV systems. A frequent problem in shared antenna systems receiving digital terrestrial TV broadcasts is a large difference in signal levels between the received multiplexes. In smaller installations (5-20 outlets) such a difference, though not recommended, in practice does not affect the reception of available channels. In bigger systems, where the large level difference at the input of the installation can be further increased by the cables and distribution equipment, it may lead to break-ups or even complete loss of reception of some channels in parts of the systems. Such risks can be eliminated by the use of channel amplifiers. The amplifiers selectively amplify the "weaker" DVB-T multiplexes in order to equalize the signals in the whole system. Additionally, they filter unwanted signals that could cause interference.
Terra at440 R82511 four-channel amplifier
Terra amplifiers are highly selective:
40 dB attenuation just 2 MHz outside the channel boundary
Distinguishing features of the Terra at440 channel amplifier:
  • filtering, amplifying and equalizing up to four digital multiplexes (DVB-T) broadcast in the UHF band,
  • AGC - automatic equalization and stabilization of signal levels to 82 dBμV (on the condition that any input signal has sufficient level),
  • high modulation error rate (MER) >36 dB,
  • output level adjustment: 0...-10 dB.
Power for remote network devices. PoE (Power over Ethernet) is the name of a number of methods that allow for powering network devices through UTP/FTP cables. This way it is possible to power devices such as cameras, phones, switches, access points, etc. In 2003, the IEEE established 802.3af PoE standard, upgraded to 802.3at in 2009. 802.3at distinguishes between the first type (prior 802.3af) and the second type with maximum transmitted power of 30 W, nearly two times higher. The second type is suitable to power cameras with high-power IR illuminators, IP telephones, small network printers etc.
The ULTIPOWER 0094af N29981 PoE switch is a desktop device enabling smooth data transmission in 10/100 Mbps Ethernet networks. Its nine RJ45 ports support auto-negotiation function, four of them provide power over Ethernet (PoE up to 15.4 W). The switch automatically detects PD devices compliant with IEEE 802.3af standard and provides them with power supply.
The most popular PoE standard, 802.3af, is used e.g. by IP cameras. The supplying voltage can vary from 44 to 57 VDC and the consumed power cannot exceed 15.4 W. The 802.3at version allows for powering devices with DC voltage within 50...57 V range, which consume up to 25.5 W. This group of devices includes printers, IP PTZ cameras, switches.
An application diagram of the ULTIPOWER 0094af 802.3af 9xFE (4xPoE) N29981 PoE switch

Optical power meter - the basic equipment of any fiber optic technician/installer. The measuring device is one of the basic tools of every installer. While low-current systems, based on copper cables (distribution of television, CCTV) may sometimes forgive the installer an unprofessional approach to measurement issues (quality estimation based only on the observation of the effects on the end devices), there is no place for such simplification in the case of optical networks. Optical systems are often deployed long before the actual use and at the initial stage they include only cable infrastructure. To verify the performance of the job done, it is necessary to have appropriate measuring devices. Even the smallest mistake or inaccuracy in connecting the components of an optical system may result in attenuation increased by a few dB, which may lead to the failure of the entire system.
Optical Power Meter GRANDWAY FHP1B02
Optical Laser Source GRANDWAY FHS1D02 (1310nm/1550nm)
Optical Power Meter
Optical Laser Source
GRANDWAY FHP1B02 L5821 is an affordable optical power meter used for measurements of optical power loss in fiber networks based on multimode and single-mode fibers. The meter is calibrated to measure optical power at six wavelengths (nm): 850, 1300, 1310, 1490, 1550, and 1625. A wide measuring range (-40...+23 dBm) and high accuracy (not worse than 0.35 dB / 10 nW) allow for precise control of any optical network. It is also possible to set 0 dB reference level. The meter is equipped with a tip that allows measurements of optical power in optical paths terminated with connectors with 2.5 mm ferrules. The kit includes FC/PC and SC/PC adapters. The features make it an ideal tool for measurements in point-to-point links and FTTH systems.
The tool necessary for precise measurements is the dedicated optical laser source GRANDWAY FHS1D02 L5825. The source generates laser beams of predetermined wavelengths and power. The device generates laser bream of the wavelength 1310 nm or 1550 nm at the power level of -5 dBm. A short-term stability of the light source is better than 0.1 dB. The two devices (the GRANDWAY meter and laser source) allow for professional testing of nearly any fiber-optic network.
New products
IPTV Streamer: TERRA sdi 480 (DVB-S/S2 to IP, USB port)
IPTV DVB-S/S2 to IP Streamer TERRA sdi 480 R81610 allows for the selection of up to 100 unencrypted satellite channels from up to 8 transponders and their distribution via Ethernet (LAN) network based on twisted-pair cabling. The output IP stream with effective throughput up to 400 Mbps is usually provided to IPTV receivers via network switches. The use of multicast technique considerably saves the network resources.
IPTV Streamer: TERRA sti-440 (DVB-T/T2/C to IP, USB port)
IPTV DVB-T/T2/C to IP Streamer TERRA sti-440 R81606 allows for selection of four multiplexes (with unencrypted channels) from terrestrial (DVB-T/T2) and cable TV (DVB-C) platforms and their distribution via Ethernet (LAN) network based on twisted-pair cabling. The output IP stream with effective throughput up to 200 Mbps is usually provided to IPTV receivers via network switches. The use of multicast technique considerably saves the network resources. Additionally, the sti-440 R81606 module can stream any material provided via USB port in the form of MPEG-2 TS (Transport Stream).
PoE Power Supply/Injector ULTIPOWER (48V 15.4W 802.3af)
PoE Power Supply/Injector ULTIPOWER (48V 15.4W 802.3af) M1891 is designed for powering devices using PoE technology. With this technology, one UTP/FTP cable transmits data and provides power to the connected network device. The compliance with the IEEE802.3af standard enables the user to employ the supplier/injector for powering any compatible PoE device.
Worth reading
Efficient wireless networks. When creating the backbone of a wireless network, at the beginning it is worth to estimate the maximum data transfers to the nodes. It allows for the proper selection of the equipment and network topology. Prior to installing the equipment, one should design the network, taking into consideration:... >>>more
Example wireless network based on point-to-point links
TRISET - coaxial cables for modern TV systems
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