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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 34/2015 (Oct. 26, 2015)
Digital rat brain. Scientists of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne have digitally reconstructed a fragment of a young rat brain, containing 31,000 neurons (of 207 different types) and 37 million synapses (connections). The computer simulation is a part of the Blue Brain Project (a project of a virtual brain), which aims to create an artificial rat brain and ultimately a model of the human brain, using a supercomputer. Although the simulation encompasses only a tiny piece of the rat brain, the results seem to capture some of the basic elements of the behavior of neurons, and even can predict the behavior of the brain fragment. Before, the team conducted tens of thousands of experiments on live young rats, carefully documenting the types of neurons and synapses - the points of intercellular communication. The observations of the current flow in the brain cells of rats allowed the scientists to learn the rules governing neuron connections.
Graphical visualization of the simulation of the part of rat brain
Using the rules, they created a virtual, three-dimensional computer model. Michael Reimann, the co-author of the study, confirmed that they have produced about 600 million connections (synapses) between the virtual nerve cells. The results can be illustrated by images showing the activity of neurons in the simulated part of the brain. The "digital neurons" behave like those in living rats, allowing to simulate the behavior of neurons in different conditions. Although the experiment involves only a small portion of connections in the cerebral cortex, the researchers are able to make up a lot of missing data, taking into account the fact that the brain is a well-ordered structure, functioning under certain conditions. The model does not include the other elements of the brain, for example glial cells and blood vessels or the mechanisms of neurotransmitters that can stimulate many neurons at once. The simulation is only the beginning of a major project that may, in the future, allow the creation of a computer model of the whole brain.
Radial multiswitches of MRS series with passive terrestrial TV path. The multiswitches are used for distribution of DVB-S/S2, DVB-T and FM/DAB broadcasts in systems based on star topology. In this type of RF distribution systems, the outlets of the users are directly connected to the multiswitch or the group of multiswitches. The system architecture is ideal for applications in one-family homes and small or medium multifamily buildings.
TERRA MRS multiswitches
  R70304 R70308 R70408 R70412
Inputs/Outputs 5/4 5/89/8 9/12
Switchable 12V (preamp)Yes Yes Yes Yes
In the example below, the terrestrial antenna set consists of A1911 and A0221 antennas. Depending on reception conditions, they can be replaced by more complex FM and/or UHF arrays. The TERRA MA080L R82022 masthead antenna amplifier has FM (88-108 MHz), VHFIII (174-230 MHz), and UHF (470-790 MHz) paths with independent adjustments of signal levels. The UHF path of the amplifier has been equipped with LTE filter. The terrestrial signals are combined in the TERRA MRS-508 R70308 multiswitch with satellite broadcasts received by the A9858 quatro LNB mounted on the A9641 satellite dish. The combined signals are distributed via coaxial cables to eight terminal outlets Signal R694100.
Steel Satellite Dish: TRIAX 80 TD (light gray)Universal QUATRO LNB: TRIAX TQT 006UHF TV antenna: DIPOL 19/21-60 DIGITALFM Antenna: Dipol 1RUZ PM B (omnidirectional H+V)Subscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATSubscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SAT5/8 Multiswitch: Terra MRS-508 (passive terrestrial path)Outdoor Antenna Amplifier TERRA MA080L (FM-VHFIII-UHF)
A small shared antenna system distributing DVB-S/S2, DVB-T and FM/DAB signals to 8 outlets
The system composed of MRS-508 TERRA R70308 multiswitch with passive terrestrial path and MA080L R82022 masthead amplifier provides a wide range of gain control in each band: FM and VHF 20 dB, UHF 30 dB.
How to choose an LTE antenna? Wireless Internet access via cellular networks is an increasingly popular service. The growing popularity of this service among subscribers is the result of mobility, higher throughput and lower prices. The absolute highlight is LTE technology that enables the achievement of data rates similar to those in landline /cable or WiFi networks.
An important element of LTE is MIMO technology (Multiple Input Multiple Output) increasing transmission efficiency by employing multiple antennas on both ends of the transmission links. Selecting an external antenna, the user should know whether the modem supports MIMO technology (has two antenna connectors). Such modems require appropriate MIMO antennas to maintain the highest possible data rates. When the user wants to employ a standard antenna, it must be connected to the connector labeled "tx/rx."
MIMO 2x2 antennas for MIMO modems:
ATK-LOG ALP LTE MIMO 2x2 Antenna (800-3000MHz, 10m cables, FME-f)
LTE MIMO Antenna: ATK-LOG LTE (800-2170MHz, 10m cable, FME socket)
ATK-LOG ALP LTE 800-3000 MHz
MIMO 2x2, 10m cables with FME sockets
ATK-LOG LTE 800-2170 MHz
MIMO 2x2, 10m cables with FME sockets
Standard LTE antennas - for modems with single antenna connector:
ATK-LOG ALP LTE Antenna (800-3000MHz, 10m cable, FME-f)
GSM/DCS/UMTS/HSDPA Antenna: ATK-LOG (5m cable, FME socket)
ATK-LOG ALP LTE 800-3000 MHz
10m cable with FME socket
Antena ATK-LOG LTE 800-2170 MHz
5m cable with FME socket
Multimode fibers - the maximum transmission distances. The phenomenon of modal dispersion is one of the main factors limiting the throughput capacity and transmission distance of a multimode fiber. The signal is spread in time because the propagation velocity of the optical signal is not the same for all the modes due to their different path lengths between the transmitter and receiver, resulting from different angles of reflection of light beams from the boundaries of the core. The pulse, an aggregate of different modes, is spread out, losing its well-defined shape, which also reduces the signal power at the receiving end.
Currently, there are four popular categories of multimode fibers. They determine, among others, the throughput capacity and the corresponding maximum transmission distance.
Classification of multimode fibers
Modal bandwidth
850 nm / 1310 nm
Fast Eth.Gb Eth.10 Gbps40 Gbps100 Gbps
OM1200 / 500 MHz*km2000 m275 m33 m--
OM2500 / 500 MHz*km550 m82 m--
OM31500 / 2000 MHz*km300 m330 m100 m
OM43500 / 4700 MHz*km400 m550 m150 m
Universal Cable: ULTIMODE UNI-8MM-A OM3 (8xOM3)
Universal ULTIMODE UNI-8MM-A L73108 cable ( (8x OM3)
Small IP CCTV system based on Hikvision NVR with built-in PoE switch. The diagram below shows an example of IP CCTV system for a single-family home, based on Hikvision devices. The system consists of 4-channel NVR K22042 with built-in PoE switch and four K1772 cameras with varifocal lenses allowing for the adjustment of viewing angles within 91°- 28° range. The cameras are also equipped with IR illuminators with range up to 30 m, which ensures perfect monitoring at night even without any additional lighting. After connecting the cameras to the PoE ports of the NVR, their IP addresses will be automatically assigned and the cameras will appear in the system without a need to configure their network parameters. As a result, the startup of the monitoring system based on the Hikvision NVR with built-in PoE switch should not create any problems even for a novice installer.
Compact IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2620F-I (2MP, 2.8-12 mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 30m)Compact IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2620F-I (2MP, 2.8-12 mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 30m)Compact IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2620F-I (2MP, 2.8-12 mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 30m)Compact IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2620F-I (2MP, 2.8-12 mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 30m)HDD Western Digital 2TB WD20PURX SATA (for CCTV DVRs)IP NVR Hikvision DS-7604NI-E1/4P/A (4ch, 25Mbps, 1xSATA, VGA, HDMI, 4xPoE, alarm IN/OUT)
IP video monitoring system for a small house.
The cameras are powered directly from the PoE switch built into the K22042 NVR.
CVBS video from HD-TVI cameras. Analog HD-TVI and conventional SD video systems (CVBS) are not compatible. Turbo HD Hikvision DVRs have universal video inputs that can cooperate both with HD-TVI and CVBS cameras. This gives the users the freedom in leaving the existing CVBS cameras in places where the change to the newer HD-TVI models is not justified. On the contrary, when one needs to connect an HD-TVI camera to an older DVR or service monitor not supporting HD-TVI standard, there are several situations:
  • Hikvision C2T and D1T cameras cannot be connected,
  • Hikvision C5T cameras have both kinds of outputs, but the CVBS output has to be activated by the switches in the cameras or by shorting additional wires (of the third cable led in parallel to the power and video cables),
  • Hikvision D5T cameras have two signal outputs operating simultaneously (the additional wires are used for control of hardware WDR function),
  • Each of the v-cam and n-cam cameras has a single video output. The video system can be changed by shorting/opening additional wires (of the third cable led in parallel to the power and video cables).
HD-TVI Camera V-CAM 360 (1080p, 3.6mm, 0.01 lx, IR up to 20m)
View of the connectors of the v-cam 360 M7403 camera.
The camera is switched to CVBS mode by shorting the additional wires (white and blue).
New products offered by DIPOL
22" LCD Monitor IIyama ProliteE2283HS M3023 is a 22" Full HD monitor with LED backlight technology. Excellent technical parameters ensure perfect image quality and comfort of the users. The dynamic contrast ratio is 12,000,000:1 (ACR), the reaction time is 2 ms. ProLiteE2283HS monitor has three inputs, two of them are digital (HDMI and DVI), the third is analog (VGA). The monitor has built-in two (stereo) 1 W speakers. The audio input can be connected to a source via the included cable terminated with mini-jack connectors. The monitor can be hung on a wall with the use of a suitable mount (VESA 100 x 100 mm).
AHD Camera Sunell SN-IRC13/66ASDN (compact, 1080p, ICR, 0.001 lx, 3.6mm, OSD, IR up to 20m)
AHD Camera Sunell SN-IRC13/66ASDN M7349 compact camera has been designed for use in video monitoring systems based on AHD (Analog High Definition) DVRs. Thanks to backwards compatibility with PAL system, the camera can also be connected to conventional PAL DVRs (after switching to CVBS mode), of course with results limited by the PAL standard. The camera has been equipped with high quality Sony Exmor IMX222 CMOS image sensor providing 1080p (2 MP) video. The housing of the camera made of aluminum alloy and having IP66 rating ensures protection against adverse weather conditions.
HD-TVI TURBO HD DVR Hikvision DS-7232HGHI-SH (32ch, 1080p@25fps, H.264, HDMI, VGA)
HD-TVI TURBO HD DVR Hikvision DS-7232HGHI-SH M75232 is a 32-channel tribrid CCTV DVR capable of recording surveillance video provided in HD-TVI, CVBS and IP standards. The maximum recording resolution is 1080p@12fps. Other supported recording resolutions (at 25 fps) are 720p / VGA / WD1 / 4CIF / CIF.
Worth reading
IP video surveillance system for a housing development. The growing popularity of CCTV systems based on IP protocol, combined with the distance limitations of Ethernet networks with twisted-pair cables (the need for an active device/hub after each 100-meter-long link) is the reason that installers increasingly adopt solutions employing fiber optic technology... >>>more
The architecture of IP CCTV system combining copper and fiber optic cabling
Coaxial Cable (75 ohm): TRISET PROFI 120dB A++ 1.13/4.80/6.90 [100m]
SIGNAL rack cabinets - performance and completeness
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