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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 36/2014 (Nov. 10, 2014)
1 Gbps via a telephone cable - G.fast goes into homes. The latest Broadband World Forum event, the world's largest symposium on broadband services, took place last week in Amsterdam. The participants presented the latest trends in the field of new technologies and solutions for the IT and telecommunications market. ADTRAN, Inc. announced that its G.fast solutions were tested by service providers in Europe, North America, Asia and the Pacific region. The tests included FTTdp scenarios (Fiber-To-The-Distribution-Point), where the FTTdp nodes were connected via fiber to fiber optic infrastructure and distributed the access to the network for end users with the use of traditional copper telephone lines. According to specifications of the standard, the G.fast "last mile"solution is to provide data tranfer rates up to 1 Gbps, which seems to be incredible result for so "old" medium. The first generation of the devices is to provide the throughput over distances up to 100 meters (from the distribution point). ADTRAN classifies this technology as a complement to FTTH (Fiber-To-The-Home) architecture, in fact a cheaper alternative to the all-fiber solutions. Andrea Calvi, responsible for IP networks in Telecom Italia, said that G.fast technology is the ideal solution for the coming years and a great alternative to the costly "full" FTTH systems.
Currently, Sckipio Technology company offers first G.fast chipsets capable of data transmission over distances up to 250 m. The first chipset, marked DP3000, has been designed to work with an optical link with a total capacity of 10 Gbps, and can support up to sixteen G.Fast lines. The second chipset, marked CP1000, is to be used in at the ends of the lines, in G.Fast modems. British Telecom is one of the first companies that have tested the chipsets in practice. The data rates achieved over a distance close to 200 m were at the level of 800 Mbps.
Will the G.fast technology hamper the development of FTTH architecture? High throughputs combined with the use of existing wiring will surely tempt telecommunications operators and broadband service providers.
Amplifiers of DVB-T signals - mast-mounted preamplifiers. The use of a mast-mounted (pre)amplifier is the optimal solution in the case of weak signals and long sections of cables between the antenna and televisions. In such situations, the amplifier located near the antenna ensures increased signal that guarantees a safe margin to the minimum level required by an indoor amplifier or the televisions, despite the attenuation of the antenna cable(s). The advantage of the majority of masthead amplifiers, compared to preamplifiers mounted directly in antenna boxes, is the possibility of gain control. Some amplifiers also have more than one output.
When buying a mast amplifier, the user should pay special attention on the noise figure. The application of an amplifier with a significant level of internal noise has no sense - the result (BER and the reception quality and stability) may be worse than without an amplifier. The noise figure should not exceed 3 dB, but the best amplifiers giving a real chance to improve TV reception in unfavorable conditions can have this parameter at the level below 1 dB.
A well known European manufacturer of RF equipment, TERRA company, offers the ABxxx series of masthead amplifiers that belong to the top-class products in their segment. The noise level is between 0.8...1 dB. They can be powered from 12 VDC power supplies, or directly from the tuner of the DVB-T receiver or television. One of them has 3 outputs, so can directly feed sugnals to 3 televisions/STBs. All TERRA products are covered by a4-year warranty.
 
NameAB010AB011AB012
CodeR82002R82003R82004
Operating band
UHF
Gain [dB]152722
Number of inputs
1
Number of outputs
13
Noise figure [dB]0.8< 1
Max output level [dBuV]98108103
Interstage gain adjustment [dB]-14/277/22
Return loss [dB]> 10
Power consumption [V x mA]4.5-12 x 304.5-12 x 60
Operating temperature [°C]-20...+50
Dimensions/Weight [mm/kg]89 x 107 x 43 / 0.18
Wireless link with an intermediate node. In many situations it is impossible to achieve a direct link between the locations that should be wirelessly connected. In most cases, the solution is to use a third, intermediate node. The node consists of two APs, usually connected via Ethernet cable. This way, the complete link is a combination of two point-to-point sub-links.
Access Point Ubiquiti NanoBeam M5 (22dBi 5GHz MIMO)Access Point Ubiquiti NanoBeam M5 (22dBi 5GHz MIMO)Access Point Ubiquiti NanoBeam M5 (22dBi 5GHz MIMO)Access Point Ubiquiti NanoBeam M5 (22dBi 5GHz MIMO)
The wireless link between two points without a line-of-sight is composed of two point-to-point sub-links
with an intermediate node (two Ubiquiti access points)
Fiber optic transmission windows. The transmission of data via optical fibers is usually performed in one (or more) "telecom windows" - the wavelength bands that are the most favorable for this purpose. The windows have been selected based on the characteristics of signal attenuation in the transmission medium.
There are three main causes of signal attenuation in optical fibers:
  • waveguide loss - results from non-uniform, imperfect structure of fibers due to limitations of the production process. It applies to the geometry of the core and non-uniformity of the refractive index in the core and cladding;
  • absorption - light energy absorption by the particles of the fiber; it depends on the method of doping of the core in the manufacturing process and its cleanliness; an increased absorption is caused by chromium, copper, iron atoms and especially by OH- ions (moisture);
  • Rayleigh scattering - consists in scattering light pulse in all directions as a result of inhomogeneous refractive index in the core due small changes in the density or composition of the glass. The Rayleigh scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength.
The selection of transmission windows has been based on the characteristics of signal attenuation
in the transmission medium caused by the waveguide, absorption, and Rayleigh scattering losses.
Individual transmission techniques are implemented in specific telecom windows, e.g. DWDM multiplexing technique mainly uses the third and fourth windows. Thanks to technological advances in the production of optical fibers, it was possible to reduce the effect of OH- ions in the vicinity of the 1400 nm wavelength (G.652D fiber) and create another, fifth transmission window.
Low-cost IP CCTV system for a single-family house. Not so long ago single-family homes were monitored only by analog CCTV systems. The analog technology was chosen mainly because of affordable prices and ease of installation. But now the situation has changed, the prices of IP CCTV equipment are much lower than before, and the technology can provide an unprecedented qualitative leap due to megapixel resolutions. Thus the growing popularity of these solutions, also in the field of home CCTV installations. For this purpose we offer low-cost, high quality IP NVR Signal 2704 K2704, with a wide range of advanced functions.
Thanks to HDMI and VGA outputs, the NVR can be connected directly to a monitor or television. It can support 4 cameras and record the video with resolutions up to 2 MP (1920 x 1080 pixels) at frame rates up to 25 fps. The NVR is supplied with free CMS software used for central configuration and management of IP CCTV systems based on Signal NVRs and IP cameras. Additionally, the NVR can be managed via IE browser.
The K2704 NVR and four Signal HDC-110P K1806 IP cameras are an excellent and economical solution for the protection of single-family homes. The cameras can be powered from M1820 power supplies, or remotely via the transmission cables connected to the N29980 PoE switch. An example layout of the cameras is shown below.
PoE Switch: ULTIPOWER 0054af (5xRJ45, 4xPoE 802.3af)IP NVR Signal HD 2704 (4ch, 40Mbps, 1xSATA, HDMI)HDD SEAGATE 1TB 7200rpm 32MB CACHE SATA3Compact IP Camera: Signal HDC-110P (2MP, 3.6mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 25m)Compact IP Camera: Signal HDC-110P (2MP, 3.6mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 25m)Compact IP Camera: Signal HDC-110P (2MP, 3.6mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 25m)Compact IP Camera: Signal HDC-110P (2MP, 3.6mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 25m)
An economical IP CCTV system (2 MP) for monitoring a small house, business, office ...,
based on Signal IP NVR, Signal IP cameras, and ULTIPOWER PoE switch
ANR function in Hikvision systems. The video from an IP camera is transmitted to the IP NVR in the form of data stream. In the case of a network failure or bandwidth reduction, the information is irretrievably lost, because the network does not buffer packets and the camera cannot send them again. This is the reason for the increasing popularity of IP cameras with SD/SDHC card recording option.
Dome IP Camera: Sunell SN-IPR54/14ALDN (2MP, 3.3-12mm, 0.1 lx, IR up to 30m)Memory Card: microSDHC 32GB UHS-I class 10 (with SD adapter)16-port Gigabit Switch: TP-Link TL-SG1016DIP NVR Hikvision DS-7608NI-SEHDD SEAGATE 3TB ST3000DM001 7200.12 XT 64MB SATA319
IP CCTV system with two methods of data archiving
The recording redundancy significantly increases the reliability of such systems. However, cheaper cameras with that functionality record the video streams on a continuous basis, which greatly reduces the life of the memory cards and do not ensure automatic synchronization of data.
The ANR (Automatic Network Replenishment) solution developed by Hikvision limits the recording on the card only to the periods of problems with connectivity between the camera and NVR. After the end of the failure, the emergency recordings are automatically transferred to the NVR. So, in the event of interruptions in the transmission, the operator of the system does not need to take any actions to complete the video footage.
New products offered by DIPOL
Compact IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD2632F-I (3MP, 2.8-2mm, 0.07 lx, IR up to 30m)
Compact IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2632F-I K1773 comes from a new series of Hikvision products - HiWatch. This series of low-budget devices, IP cameras and IP NVRS, is dedicated for anyone who wants to build low-cost high-resolution IP CCTV system. The compact camera has been equipped with high quality 3 MP CMOS sensor providing perfect video even in low-light conditions.
Ceiling IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD2532-I (3MP, 2.8mm, 0.07 lx, IR up to 10m)
Ceiling IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2532-I K1721 can operate outdoors or indoors. Its housing with high ingress protection rating (IP66) protects the electronics against adverse weather conditions. The built-in IR illuminator has a range of up to 10 m. The camera can be powered with a 12 VDC power source or via PoE (802.3af). A special feature of this 3 MP camera is small size - the diameter is only 10 cm.
BNC Platinum 113 MASTER (compressed on Triset-113)
BNC Platinum 113 MASTER E8277 connector is made ​​of brass plated with nickel and is specially prepared for TRISET-113 cables. The material used provides resistance to corrosion. High precision ensures superior quality and professional look. The compression method of installation is very simple and guarantees good and stable connection for a long time.
Worth reading
How to improve LTE connectivity? In many countries LTE networks have not been completely deployed yet. Full coverage is usually guaranteed only in large cities. Many internet users appreciate advantages of LTE technology and would like to use it even on the borders of the range. In order to enhance the signal from a mobile operator, the user of an LTE modem should connect the device to an external antenna pointed towards the base station of the cellular operator. The recommended model of the antenna is TRANS-DATA LTE KYZ 7.5/8/10 A741031 operating in 698-800 MHz, 800-960 MHz, and 1700-2700 MHz frequency ranges, that is in all bands allocated for LTE services.
TRANS-DATA LTE KYZ 7.5/8/10 A741031 is an outdoor, directional log periodic antenna
for use with LTE (4G), 3G, DCS, GSM modems and cellular phones,
with gain from 7.5 to 10 dBi, depending on the operating band
900 TVL Sunell cameras
 
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