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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 14/2012 (April 2, 2012)
Cars getting smarter. A group of world leaders in automotive and information technologies (among others: Opel, BMW, Dailmler, Honda, Delphi, NEC, Hitachi, SAP) is working on a modern system improving driving safety - DRIVE C2X.

The computer system of Car-To-X (C2X) is based on M2M technology and allows cars to automatically interact with each other and exchange information about traffic jams, accidents and traffic problems. The driver is alerted to vehicles being out of the view, for example arond the corner of another street. To communicate, C2X uses IEEE 802.11p standard, created specifically for vehicular applications, which in addition to car-to-car communication also allows cars to communicate with the road infrastructure (car-to-infrastructure).

"Imagine a scenario where an ambulance automatically has traffic lights changed in its favor when rushing to the hospital because it, and the traffic lights in the city, are fitted with the chips and are able to talk to each other" - said Kurt Sievers, senior vice president and general manager of NXP's Automotive business unit, giving an example of the benefits.

So, the idea is ​​noble, and we should keep our fingers crossed.
Car-To-X (C2X) system allows cars to automatically interact with each other
and share information about traffic jams, accidents and traffic problems
before they could be spotted by the drivers
M2M (Machine-to-Machine) technology is based on the ability of devices connected to the network for collecting, processing and exchanging information without human intervention. This technology saves time and resources and minimizes the risk of human errors. Currently, it is difficult to mention one area where there would be no prospects for this technology. With only about 9 million devices using M2M solutions in 2006, the currently projected rate of growth is amazing, to reach 50 billions (!) such devices by 2020.
Professional equipment and professional software - Hikvision DVRs. Hikvision DVRs of the 7300 and 8100 series come with an excellent software package, iVMS4000. Among the many functions available through the network, an interesting one is that providing possibility to define alarm events in continuous recording mode.
The first advantage of this recording mode is the ability to define different image recording parameters for the period of an event and for the remaining time. For example - the DVR records a video channel continuously with CIF resolution, and when motion is detected in a defined area of the camera image, it increases the image resolution to 4CIF, and records the video at a higher bitrate and frame rate.
The channel Video Parameters include Main Stream (Normal) and Main Stream(Event) settings
Another advantage of the software is a quick preview of events, in contrast with the standard search for an important fragment of the video footage, which is usually tedious.
Standard search function - all recordings on the timeline
Event Record Playback option in iVMS4000 allows the operator to skip all fragments that were not triggered by motion detection or other alarm events, speeding up the search.
Advanced search for alarm events allows the operator to quickly find the desired video segment
The iVMS4000 software is free. It can be downloaded from Download DIPOL. The Event Record Playback option can be used with DVRs running the latest firmware (ver.3.2.2).
Feeding video signals from security cameras into SMATV systems based on bus architecture (part 2 - CCTV images distributed within "private" DVB-T multiplexes). The application of multiswitch systems based on bus architecture is the most universal and reliable way to distribute television signals in SMATV systems.
The systems can be easily adapted for distribution of images from CCTV cameras in the form of digital multiplex(es). The video signals from surveillance cameras can be injected into the RF distribution network with the use of MMH-3000 headend equipped with suitable modules producing output DVB-T multiplex(es). The main advantages of this solution are:
  • consistency of standards across the entire system - elimination of analog signals (there are only satellite DVB-S and terrestrial DVB-T signals, the latter including the video feeds from the cameras encoded as digital channels);
  • frequency bandwidth economy - one multiplex that occupies a single channel band can carry 6 video signals from CCTV cameras, instead of one signal in the case of analog modulation;
  • the same image quality throughout the whole distribution system - thanks to the features of digital modulation and demodulation the images are free from any interference and identical in any point of the system.
DVB-T Modulator (COFDM) for TERRA MMH-3000MPEG-2 Encoder: Terra MD-330 (for MMH-3000 headend)Twin Channel Amplifier: Terra at420 (UHF, analog TV &DVB-T, AGC) Multiband Amplifier Terra ma400 (FM/VHF/UHF)High Speed Dome Camera: PH-33 (3.5-111.5 mm, 540 TVL, Sony Super Had CCD, 0.7 lx)Vandal Proof Camera: v-cam 430 (600 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 3.6mm, IR up to 20m)Amplifier for 5-input multiswitches: Terra SA 501 Coaxial Cable (75 ohm): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]Subscriber Terminal Outlet: Signal R-TV-SATMultiswitch Terra MSV-508 (5-in, 8-out) - with IF gain adjustmentMultiswitch Terra MSV-508 (5-in, 8-out) - with IF gain adjustmentMultiswitch Terra MSV-508 (5-in, 8-out) - with IF gain adjustmentSAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-510SAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-510
An example of SMATV system based on bus architecture, distributing satellite TV and DVB-T channels
plus 6 video channels from security cameras - in the form of another DVB-T multiplex
The video channels from the CCTV system are injected to the RF distribution system with the use of Terra MMH-3000 headend equipped with two MD-330 R81713 encoders converting the analog signals from surveillance cameras into digital transport stream (MPEG2 TS). The six transport streams are supplied to the inputs of the DVB-T modulator TRX-360 R8170 that forms a COFDM modulated DVB-T RF channel (multiplex) at the frequency selected by the installer/operator. The signal from the headend is then fed into a set of at420 R82510 channel amplifiers responsible for combining the "CCTV multiplex" with selectively amplified terrestrial DVB-T channels. Similarly to these channels, the CCTV video feeds can be received by any user of the system having a television with MPEG2/MPEG4 tuner or other TV set and a suitable STB.
How to reduce the costs of expanding a passive optical network (PON)? Increasingly more popular passive optical networks make it possible to connect up to 64 or even 128 users to one transmitting device. Their network architecture is based on unpowered optical splitters which introduce significant attenuation in the transmission paths (splitting ratio of 1:4 is equivalent to attenuation of about 7 dB). It means that extension of a passive network involves the exchange of active devices, either for transmitters with a higher output power or for receivers with increased sensitivity.

A method of reducing the costs of expanding a passive optical network is installation of active devices with SFP slots. This way, when the future expansion of the network requires to add an optical splitter and the power budget in a transmission line is inadequate, the problem can be solved by replacing the SFP module for another one with sufficient output power.
Ethernet Media Converter: ULTIMODE M-100G/SFPSFP Transceiver: ULTIMODE SFP-203G 2xLC (two single-mode fibers up to 20 km)Ethernet Media Converter: ULTIMODE M-100G/SFPSFP Transceiver: ULTIMODE SFP-203G 2xLC (two single-mode fibers up to 20 km)
Ethernet media converter and a compatible SFT slot
SFP (Small Form-Factor Pluggable) are modules used in telecommunications for data conversion and transmission. They are widely used in switches, routers, media converters. SFP modules (also known as Mini-GBIC) are designed for SONET, ATM, GigabitEthernet, optical networks. SFP interface has been standardized by the manufacturers under the Multi-Source Agreement (MSA). The interface is the the successor of GBIC and allows greater port density.
Wide Dynamic Range (WDR). The dynamic range of an image sensor refers to its ability of simultaneous rendering of details in bright and dark areas of the image. It can be defined as the ratio of the voltage corresponding to the brightest point to the voltage corresponding to the darkest point. In the case of best "normal" CCD sensors the ratio can reach 1000:1, i.e. 60 dB.
Image sensors with wide dynamic range (WDR) can reach even 1000x higher values of the ratio, corresponding to 120 dB. This significantly increases the amount of details that can be distinguished in difficult lighting conditions, especially in the brightest and darkest areas of the image.
Cameras with such sensors are especially desired in places where the objects (subject) are in a shade over a very bright background (e.g. against a large window), and in spots where lighting is variable (e.g. opposite the entrance door), or generally in sites with very different light intensity in the scene.
WDR is implemented in two ways:
  • each pixel of the image sensor is a kind of independent analog-to-digital converter, so it can individually adapt to local exposure and provide output signal that shows the important detail, without overexposure or underexposure. This method is used by the Sunell SN-BXC0586DCN(II) M11207 camera;
In DPS™ image sensor (on the right) each pixel is a kind of independent A/D converter
individually adapting to local exposure
  • the image is scanned twice with considerably different exposure parameters. Thus, the resultant imaging is a combination of two fields. This is the operation mode of cameras based on Effio-P DSP, e.g. Sunell SN-BXC59/50CDN M11225.
To get the resultant imaging (on the left), Effio-P processor scans the image twice
How to view images from Sunell cameras on the iPad? Shenzhen Sunell Technology Corporation has just released InView software - network video surveillance application for Apple iPad, allowing management of their IP security cameras, e.g. K1620, K1630, K1650, K1660, K1670, K1680, K1690. The users of this popular tablet can connect directly to the cameras from any place in the world with sufficient network capacity and view the video surveillance images, as well as configure and control the functions of their monitoring systems.
A screenshot from InView application
The main features of the application:
  • Real-time video and audio monitoring;
  • Displaying single or multiple images on the screen (1/4/9 channels);
  • Single channel can be displayed with D1/VGA resolution at 25 fps, 4 channels with CIF/QVGA resolution at 15 fps , 9 channels with QCIF resolution at 10 fps;
  • Real-time snapshots;
  • PTZ control (zoom in-out, pan and tilt rotation, setting and calling presets and patterns);
  • Manual and automatic search for cameras in the network (up to 32 cameras);
  • Complete remote configuration of video channels including camera settings, privacy masking, alarm events, local recording;
  • Rebooting, restoring default settings.
Phone over the Internet - VoIP gateway. The VoIP gateway/router 8level IPG-801 N4001 makes it possible to use services of three VoIP providers at the same time, through a DSL line. The gateway has one telephone jack (1xFXS) allowing the use of analog phone to hold conversations over the Internet. This form of connections allows the user(s) to significantly reduce the costs of telephone and fax services.
The basic application of the gateway in an existing LAN
Main features:
  • support for 3 SIP accounts,
  • two Ethernet ports,
  • FXS port (for an analog phone),
  • built-in router, enabling Internet connection sharing,
  • support for multiple codecs: G.711a/u, G.723, G.726, G.729A, G.729B,
  • phone settings/functions: volume, quick dial, phone book, call-switching.
As an option, the users can share the Internet connection without the need for an additional router.
The use of the router functionality
New products offered by DIPOL
Universal Mechanical Splice: KeyQuick10 SC/APC SM
Universal Mechanical Splice: KeyQuick C-MS100-NT
Universal Installation Kit: Key-Tool-Kit (for mechanical splices and mechanical splice connectors)
Universal Mechanical Splice
KeyQuick10 SC/APC SM
Universal Mechanical Splice
KeyQuick C-MS100-NT
Universal Installation Kit: Key-Tool-Kit
(for mechanical splices and connectors)
Worth reading:
No more problems with remote control of devices hidden in cabinets. The use of modern and esthetic cabinets for electronic devices may cause problems with remote control. In such situations, it is necessary to use special IR benders. The sensor of the Signal IRB-600U R94130 IR bender receives IR commands from any remote control and distributes them to three IR transmitters. Each of them can be placed in front of different device (e.g. on the window/door of the cabinet, glass case etc. housing the devices, from inside). This way, any of the target devices can receive the user's commands without problems caused by location behind the window/door (lack of reaction, shorter range, need for very precise pointing etc)...
Typical application of Signal IRB-600U IR remote control bender
Protect 701 - not only for vehicles. An installer was to create a system for monitoring board meetings of one company. The requirements included low cost, recording of high quality video and audio, as well as the mobility of the system - the meetings are held in different places.
To accomplish the objectives, the installer did not choose a PC-based nor IP CCTV solution, but the portable DVR camera PROTECT 701 M70701. The recorded video can have a resolution of up to 1280x720 pixels (HD Ready 720p) at 25 frames per second, which is sufficient for the impression of a good smoothness of movement of people and objects. The built-in high quality microphone allows for audio recording, the lens with wide viewing angle (120 degrees) is able to cover the whole room without using additional cameras...
Protect 701 is an ideal tool for recording conferences and meetings
Gigabit fiber link. Such links solve communication problems in medium-sized and large companies. They can be built with the use of media converters or switches with SFP modules.
A stable fiber optic connection with Gigabit throughput can be based on ULTIMODE M-203G L11025 media converter (placed on the service provider side) and Web Smart Switch TP-Link N29949 equipped with ULTIMODE SFP-203G L1415 SFP transceiver. This set of devices can transmit data through a pair of single mode fibers over distance up to 20 km. The company's network uses TP-Link switches.
DVB-T Receiver Signal HD-527 (MPEG-2/4, PVR Ready)
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