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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 02/2012 (Jan. 09, 2012)
"Foolish" TVs must die. According to Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs' biographer, the late visionary wanted to do for televisions what he did for computers, music players and phones: make them simple and elegant.
On November 28, 2011, Fox News website reported that the final Steve Jobs' product - a new generation of televisions - would enter the market in the summer 2012. This is consistent with the information that appeared on the Internet in the last days of 2011 that Apple was looking for suppliers of components to start production of new 32- and 37-inch TVs.
What could be the new Apple TV? "Imagine a 40 or 50-inch iPad" - said Gene Munster, an analyst at Piper Jaffray &Co. If we add to this a natural language user interface (Siri), gesture recognition technology (Wii and Kinnect) and applications known from iPhone - Apple can really make a breakthrough in television sets.
What about the competition?

Google is doing everything to not repeat the mistake about Facebook and not have to make up for lost distance. "By the summer of 2012, the majority of the televisions you see in stores will have Google TV embedded."- said Eric Schmidt, Google's Executive Chairman, at LeWeb in Paris in November 2011.
In the case of Google, they may both offer their Google TV software (sharing some technologies with Android mobile operating system) to big companies that dominate the market (Samsung, Sony, LG) and, after buying Motorola, produce their own TV sets.
Who will guide the development of interactive television?
The test for Google's ideas will be the upcoming CES in Las Vegas, starting January 10. If the leading manufacturers of televisions show solutions consistent with the concept of Google TV, it will mean winning the first stage of the race with Apple.

The time when TV sets were used only for receiving television programs is coming to an end. The new generation of televisions prepared for Google TV and Apple TV will be in fact advanced computers with operating systems and versatile connectivity.
This raises a new challenge for the Average Joe - not to be less intelligent than the TV.

A universal standard allows for watching TV on televisions, tablets and smartphones
The new generation of televisions will be prepared for interactive TV, being developed by Google and Apple. Interactive TV will combine the current television broadcasting and the Internet, however the web will gradually gain the advantage. The viewers will have access to new services such as video on demand (VoD), interactive games, electronic newspapers, movies, YouTube videos, photo albums. They will also be able to watch any broadcast stored in the archives of the broadcaster. The selection of television programs and new services will be possible through dedicated websites (just like on the Internet today).
iTV changes the traditional model of broadcasting the content - in the new model the viewers decide on what and when they want to watch.

Less larger groups or more smaller ones? The division of a large CCTV system into subnetworks (camera groups) on the designing/construction stage is often a convenient way to improve the system performance.
This allows for:
  • independence of the groups - greater fault tolerance,
  • lower installation costs due to shorter cables,
  • reduced problems with supplying 12 VDC voltage - several power supplies, shorter power cables,
  • more flexible system architecture.
An ideal DVR for each of the groups is Hikvision DS-7204HVI-ST/M M72041. It has all the features available in enterprise-class devices (such as alarm inputs and outputs, PTZ control interface), capability of recording video with 4CIF (704 x 576) resolution at 12 fps (each channel), and interoperability with all Hikvision DVRs provided by free but advanced iVMS4000 software.
Network DVR: HIKVISION DS-7204HVI-ST/M (4-ch H.264, alarm, PTZ)
The configuration, system control and video monitoring functions can be performed remotely via the LAN.
The full interoperability of the Hikvision equipment (IP cameras and DVRs) allows for creating complex hybrid CCTV systems for a low cost.
How to combine DVB-S and DVB-T signals? Many owners of one-family homes prefer antenna installations that distribute terrestrial and satellite TV signals via a single cable. The best solution is to combine the signals from the receiving antennas at the input of the RF distribution system which usually feeds several outlets located in different rooms. Despite the fact that these signals are transmitted in different bands, they cannot be combined using simple RF splitters/combiners.
In the case of such small individual installations consisting of one to several outlets, the cheapest and most convenient solution is to use dedicated TV/SAT combiners. They allow for the mixing of these signals, and some models, like R85310, can also pass the DC voltage for the terrestrial TV antenna preamplifier.
UHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-69 Tri DigitUHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-69 Tri Digit w. ampAntenna Preamplifier: LNA-177 (box-mounted, shielded, 30dB)Coaxial Cable (75 ohm): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]Flush Outlet: Satel GAR-BG-DK (end-of-line)DVB-T Receiver Signal HD-527 (MPEG-2/4, PVR Ready) TV/SAT Wall Plate: Signal R-TV-SAT (terminal)Subscriber Terminal Outlet: SIGNAL TV/FM/SAT1/SAT2 (PVR)TV/SAT Combiner - Splitter RS-01/DCTV/SAT Combiner - Splitter RS-01/DCCoaxial Cable (75 ohm): TRISET-113 1.13/4.8/6.8 [1m]QUAD FULLBAND LNB: Golden Interstar 0.2 dB Steel Satellite Dish: CORAB COR-900S (90cm)
An example of a small antenna system distributing signals to three outlets: the first one provides DVB-T signal, the second and third provide DVB-T and DVB-S signals (the latter feeds two inputs of a PVR receiver). The B4009 preamplifier is powered via the TV/SAT combiner-splitter RS-01/DC R85310, which delivers stabilized 12 VDC voltage (obtained from a higher DC voltage from the SAT receiver). It should be borne in mind that that some satellite receivers provide no power in standby mode, which will mean the necessity to switch on such a device in order to watch terrestrial TV on any television.
Note! Too high level of terrestrial TV signal can interfere with satellite TV signals. To avoid or solve the problem, the installer should reduce the gain of the terrestrial TV preamplifier, change it for a model with a lower gain, or even employ at its output the adjustable RF attenuator TRA-03 TRA-03 R50150 (it passes DC voltage).
Professional monitoring of a supermarket and parking lot. The video monitoring system covers the grocery store and adjacent parking lot for customers. The camera points monitor two cash registers, store shelves, the entrance to the store and the parking lot. The supermarket is located outside a city, near a church with a high tower. It is the reason for many close lightning discharges during storm periods. Knowing the facts, the owner required a number of solutions and features:
  • stable operation,
  • quick installation,
  • immunity to the effects of lightning discharges,
  • modern IP-based system.
Due to the required immunity to strong electromagnetic pulses caused by lightning discharges, the installer has chosen solution based on polymer optical fibers. They are completely immune to electromagnetic interference and lightning effects, thus ensuring stable operation and uninterrupted recording of video in the highest quality.
High resolution video is captured by Sunell megapixel cameras K1670 and K1630. They are connected with ULTIMODE POF-100MC L6213 media converters which transmit the optical signals to the POF Ethernet switch ULTIMODE POF-8S L6108. The optical switch connects with a computer running free NVMS software. The architecture of the system is very flexible - after installing another ULTIMODE POF-8S L6108 switch the number of cameras can even be doubled.
Ethernet Media Converter: ULTIMODE POF-100MC IP CMOS Camera: Sunell SN-IPC54/12DN (2MP, H.264, ONVIF)Ethernet Media Converter: ULTIMODE POF-100MC IP CMOS Camera: Sunell SN-IPC54/12DN (2MP, H.264, ONVIF)Ethernet Media Converter: ULTIMODE POF-100MC IP CMOS Camera: Sunell SN-IPC54/12DN (2MP, H.264, ONVIF)Ethernet Media Converter: ULTIMODE POF-100MC POF Ethernet Switch: ULTIMODE POF-8S (8x OptoLock) Outdoor IP Camera: Sunell SN-IPR54/50DN (720p CCD)Outdoor IP Camera: Sunell SN-IPR54/50DN (720p CCD)Ethernet Media Converter: ULTIMODE POF-100MC IP CMOS Camera: Sunell SN-IPC54/12DN (2MP, H.264, ONVIF)
CCTV at a vehicle inspection station. After nighttime theft, the owner of a vehicle inspection station decided to install a video surveillance system. For this goal, he identified three areas from which the images should be of high quality, both day and night.
The entrance and exit from the garage are monitored by Sunell M11207 day/night cameras placed inside the building. The compact cameras are equipped with Super Wide Dynamic image sensors providing well-balanced images, especially in the case of a high contrast and high light intensity.
The inside parts of the garage are observed by Sunell M11209 cameras featuring high sensitivity and resolution.
The both types of the cameras are equipped with mechanically switching IR filters (ICR). It guarantees that they produce a natural-color rendition of the original scene, and at night, after switching off the light, they provide excellent images captured in IR spectrum, thanks to the Redbeam IRD120 M1643 illuminators.
The area outside the garage is monitored by four compact cameras n-cam 670 M11284 with built-in IR illuminators with range up to 30 meters. The video from all the cameras is recorded by 8-channel DVR Trend M72508 equipped with 500 GB HDD M89255.
Outdoor Compact Camera: n-cam 670 (day/night, D-WDR, 650TVL, Sony Effio-E, 0.03 lx, 2.8-12mm, OSD, IR up to 30m) Outdoor Compact Camera: n-cam 670 (day/night, D-WDR, 650TVL, Sony Effio-E, 0.03 lx, 2.8-12mm, OSD, IR up to 30m) Day/Night Box Camera: Sunell SN-BXC0586DCN(II)(WDR, 690HTVL, Wide Dynamic Pixim, ICR, 0.06 lx) Day/Night Box Camera: Sunell SN-BXC0586DCN(II)(WDR, 690HTVL, Wide Dynamic Pixim, ICR, 0.06 lx) Day/Night Box Camera: SN-BXC5930CDN (D-WDR, 650 TVL, Sony Effio-E, ICR, 0.03 lx)Day/Night Box Camera: SN-BXC5930CDN (D-WDR, 650 TVL, Sony Effio-E, ICR, 0.03 lx)IR illuminator: Redbeam IRD120 (850nm, 180 degrees)CCTV Network DVR: TREND 250X08 (H.264, 8 channels)
Schematic layout of the cameras in the vehicle inspection station
Hybrid video surveillance system for a housing development in Krakow. One of Krakow's housing associations decided to build a video monitoring system. Analyzing the requirements and optimizing the costs of the system, they chosen a hybrid solution:
  • images from 7 outdoor 2MP IP cameras from Hikvision ( K1443 ) are recorded on the computer running IVMS-4000 software,
  • images from several analog vandal-proof cameras V-CAM 540 M10752 are recorded by 8-channel DVR, Hikvision M76080.
The IVMS-4000 software manages both the IP cameras and the DVR, which allows for live monitoring of the analog cameras, as well as for accessing archive video from the DVR directly on the computer running the software.
The IP cameras working in the hybrid CCTV system
based on IVMS-4000 software and the Hikvision DVR (on the right)
The application of the 2 MP IP cameras from Hikvision ( K1443 ) was dictated by the need to observe a wide area around the buildings and, at the same time, recognize faces of people appearing in the area. To adjust the field of view, they cooperate with UltiEye 3-8 mm M2263 lens. The whole devices have been placed in outdoor housings Marathon MH-806/12 M5406 with IR illuminators Redbeam IR40 M1640.

The people entering and leaving the stairways are observed by analog vandal proof cameras V-CAM 540 M10752, with a smaller field of view.
The images from an outdoor 2 MP camera K1443 and an indoor, vandal proof camera M10752
(screenshots from the computer running IVMS-4000 software)
All the apartment houses are connected with a fiber optic cable. The images from the cameras are recorded on a single central server running free IVMS-4000 software and can be accessed from any point of the local network. As mentioned, the IVMS-4000 software manages both the IP cameras and provides access to the live and recorded video from the analog cameras connected to the Hikvision DVR.
What determiners the range of Wireless LAN (802.11)? The maximum transmission distance depends on several factors, such as:
  • direct line-of-sight between the antennas - this is the most important factor that determines the range and efficiency of data transmission. Any obstacles, such as trees, buildings, etc. adversely affect the operation and reliability of the transmission;
  • standard, band and channel - in the case of long links the channel should be free from interference which may be caused by other WiFi networks;
  • category of devices - long wireless links should not be based on SOHO devices but only on professional equipment using 802.11a standard. The examples of professional equipment are devices with Mikrotik OS from ULTIAIR series;
  • maximum output power (EIRP) - limited by national regulations. Generally, it is better to use an antenna with a higher gain than a more powerful wireless module.
Under favorable conditions (direct visibility, no interference) the wireless links based on ULTIAIR equipment can be built over distances up to 15 km.
More on designing wireless links
A set of ULTIAIR devices allowing efficient wireless data transmission over distances up to 15 km:
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 419KCWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KC

New products offered by DIPOL:
CDMA 450 Antenna: FREEDOM CDMA-10 400-470 MHz (with 15m cable + TNC connector)
TV Modulator TERRA MT57 (stereo A2, B3+S2+UHF)
MOTOR-ZOOM Camera: Sunell SN-ZMC6100DN/Z22 (4-88mm, day/night, ICR, Sony Super Had II 540 TVL, 0.05 lx, OSD)
with 15m cable and TNC con.
Stereo A2 modulator
Sunell SN-ZMC6100DN/Z22
Worth reading:
Why the rising popularity of small antennas on balconies? The answer is simple - digital DVB-T signals allow to eliminate the "ghosts" that forced the users of analog TV to place their antennas as high as possible (usually somewhere on the roof) to minimize reflected signals. Therefore, the simplest solution for individual reception of digital terrestrial television is to use Signal HDA-5000 A6040 - a compact DVB-T antenna suitable for mounting on a balcony or a facade of a building.
The A6040 antenna combines simple design with good receiving parameters (quad dipoles). The employed low-noise amplifier is specially dedicated to receiving DVB-T signals. The antenna is ideally suited for areas with good and average level of terrestrial TV signals (as well as can be used for analog TV signals in non-problematic areas), allowing to receive signals over distances up to 20-30 kilometers from the transmitter. This aesthetic and unobtrusive device ensures correct reception of SD and HD channels (it may depend on local conditions)...
Signal HDA-5000 A6040
(difficult to spot - to the right
of the satellite dish)
Outdoor digital TV antenna Signal HDA-5000 A6040
Gamma correction in CCTV cameras. Gamma correction is the camera feature which allows for nonlinear scaling of the brightness levels of the image to the characteristics of the display and human eye.
The original signal level is linearly dependent on the intensity of the incident light, while the impression of brightness perceived by the eye is proportional to the logarithm of the light intensity of the display (luminance).
The human eye senses a two-fold increase in brightness of some area when the luminance level is about six times higher. It is therefore appropriate to scale the image to compensate this phenomenon. It is usually carried out by a digital algorithm embedded in the camera's processing chip...
The influence of gamma correction factor on the perceived image quality
GSM repeaters - adjustment of the input signal. A serious problem during the installation of a GSM repeater is to ensure adequate signal level at the input of the amplifier. In the case of too weak or too strong signal, the system will not function properly (broken calls, problems to establish connections etc).
A convenient solution to this problem, implemented in Signal A6765, A6775, A6785 repeaters, is the built-in attenuator allowing to adjust the level of the input signal (attenuation 0-31 dB, step 1 dB). The suitable attenuation level is indicated by green color of the LEDs (Alarm Low and Alarm High) located on the front panel. In addition, the AGC function of the devices allows to compensate for the influence of changeable propagation conditions...

View of the attenuator installed in Signal GSM repeaters
DVB-T Receiver Signal HD-527 (MPEG-2/4, PVR Ready)
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