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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 26/2011 (Aug. 29, 2011)
Unprecedented transmission speeds through optical fibers. During the last three months we received messages about three events that may permanently change the modern fiber-optic telecommunications.

First, in May, the world was shocked by Japanese scientists who, working in two independent groups, achieved transfer rates over 100 Tb/s.
The first group, associated with NEC, proposed a solution consisting of 370 coupled laser beams producing a composite pulse. Each laser emits beam with different frequency, amplitude and polarization, which can be independently decoded by the receiver. The researchers were able to reach transfer rate of 101.7 Tb/s over a distance of 165 km, using a single fiber.
The second team (cooperating with the Japanese National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) chose a different path - they developed a fiber containing not one but seven cores, each of them having transmission capacity of 15.6 Tb/s. The total transfer rate over the same distance reached 109 Tb/s.

To realize the rank of the Japanese achievements, it is worth mentioning that the rates at this level would be enough to handle all the traffic on the Internet!

The first commercial applications with data transfer rates exceeding 100 Tb/s might be implemented in data centers of Internet giants - Google, Facebook, Amazon.
A month later, researches at the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden presented a new optical amplifier with record-breaking low noise figure of 1 dB (the commonly used EDFA amplifiers have this parameter at the level of 3 dB). Such amplifiers can be placed in the optical path at a greater distance from each other, thus increasing the possible transmission range of a node from 1000 km to 4000 km.

The third breakthrough in fiber optics was announced in July. An international team grouping researches from ITEAM (Institute of Telecommunications and Multimedia Applications, Technical University of Valencia), Spain, and experts from Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands and McGill University in Montreal, Canada, built an optical router chip, not only running 100 times faster than those currently available, but also about 100 000 times smaller in area (the chip has dimensions of only 4.8 mm by 1.5 mm).
Currently, fiber-optic backbone network is similar to traditional telephone networks, i.e. network resources are reserved for the duration of the connection, regardless of whether the data is sent or not. The proposed solution allows to divide the information into smaller packets and send them in different ways, using the links more efficiently. Moreover, the packets, regardless of the paths, reach the target in the correct order. So far, similar concepts were based on converting the optical signals into electrical form, which was associated with reduced processing speed. The optical router eliminates these disadvantages.

Who knows what we will hear in the near future. Maybe, after the latest achievements in fiber optics, the next leap will be a breakthrough in the construction of optical memory, and eventually the only places with copper artifacts will be... museums.
A tower in a "city of beer". The TV tower visible in the picture is 232 m high and was completed in 1984.
The rooms at the foot of the tower are housing the Olympic Museum, because the city hosted sailors during the Olympic Regatta 2008.
The name of the city is also a well-known brand of beer.

In which city is the tower visible in the photo? The answer at the end of this issue.
A TV tower in a "city of beer" - where is it?
SMATV system with 240 outlets in the office of an electronics manufacturer. One of the office buildings in Warsaw, where several floors are occupied by design offices of one of the largest electronics manufacturers, has been equipped with an interesting multiswitch system.
Due to professional purposes, the system is constructed from the highest quality components.
The whole system providing signals to 240 outlets is based on TERRA MSV multiswitches. It consists of ten multiswitches MSV-924 R70874 and the amplifier for 9-input multiswitches, SA-901 R70901, which also supplies power for the multiswitches (via signal lines). It is especially useful feature of MSV multiswitches, eliminating the need of using additional power strips in RACK cabinets and simplifying the cabling (quite complicated due to the number of the outlets).
The small size of the TERRA multiswitches and the large number of outputs were key factors enabling dense clustering in RACK cabinets shown in the photos. The system also uses F-type feed-thru patch panels R9120312 allowing for better cable management.
The main type of coaxial cable used in the installation is TRISET-113 E1015. The longest section of the cable linking one of the cabinets with an outlet is 70 m. An interesting fact is that the system employs over 1500 PCT compression connectors. Because the investor also required access to terrestrial DVB-T channels, the additional component of the system is the broadband amplifier Terra HA-129 R82314.
The investor, seeking best solutions, chose a TERRA multiswitch system. It was also a good choice for the contractor, because TERRA company provides very good technical support, including SatNet software. The program enables the user to design a complete installation, including selection of the active and passive equipment, wiring, and appropriate settings of the parameters of active components of the SMATV system. The latest version of the software allows for saving the projects in graphic formats, which is very useful for providing documentation required by investors.
The way to eliminate shocks, humming and sparking - Signal galvanic isolator. In bigger installations, the differences of potentials between individual parts of the antenna/cable networks may cause overvoltages, surge and ground loop currents effecting in sparks when connecting the equipment (and even light electric shocks). It may also be the reason of unexpected failures of the active pieces of the equipment like RF amplifiers or even TV receivers. The solution to the problems is the use of galvanic isolators Signal R48605.
The way to eliminate shocks, humming and sparking - Signal galvanic isolator
The Signal galvanic isolator eliminates the negative influence of potential differences between the grounds of different components of antenna systems on their reliability, comfort and safety of use, and the quality of received signals
DVRs for the most demanding customers. SIGNAL DL-8308 M78308 and DL-8316 M78316 belong to a modern series of high-end DVRs. Its performance and features place it at the forefront of solutions offered on the market. Some of the features include HDMI, VGA, SPOT outputs, advanced network software, recording speed of 25 fps - each channel and 4CIF (the maximum resolution in the case of analog CCTV systems). The resolution can be reduced to CIF. H.264 compression, providing good video quality at substantially lower bitrates than the previous standards, saves available disk capacity and bandwidth of the network.

SIGNAL DL-8308 M78308 (8-ch)
SIGNAL DL-8316 M78316 (16-ch)
SIGNAL recorders have already gained a wide popularity, due to functionality and performance parameters:
  • VGA output (up to 1280x1024), BNC video out, and HDMI output working simultaneously (the menu of the DVR is available on HDMI and VGA, or VIDEO OUT),
  • Live digital zoom,,
  • Protection of selected recordings against overwriting,
  • Files can be archived in the native format of the DVR or in avi format,
  • Ability to create user accounts with different access/management rights,
  • Editable Black and White lists (ranges of of blocked and authorized IP addresses),,
  • Built-in web server - access to the DVR through client software or web page (available in multiple languages).
SIGNAL DVRs set new standards in the way CCTV systems are designed and operated.
Optical connectors. Fiber-optic connectors enable quick connection, disconnection, cross-connection of optical fibers. To ensure minimal attenuation, the connectors have to meet high quality requirements, including the high-precision geometrical centering of an optical fiber (thousandths of a millimeter). There are many types of optical connectors, e.g. SC, E-2000, FC, LC, MU, MT-RJ. In addition, there are differences depending on the type of the fiber, or the size of ferrule and the method of its polishing (ferrule is a tube made of metal or ceramics, protecting and guiding the end of the optical fiber).

Fiber-optic connectors can be divided into three categories depending on:
flat or angle-polished end-face:
- PC (physical contact)
- APC (angled physical contact)

APC ferrules are polished at an angle of 8o to minimize reflections. PC connectors are usually colored blue, while APC connectors - green.
Single-mode Pigtail ULTIMODE PG-51S (1 x SC, 9/125)
Single-mode Pigtail ULTIMODE PG-52S<br />(1 x SC/APC, 9/125)
Single-mode pigtail with SC/PC connector
( L3551 )
Single-mode pigtail with SC/APC connector
( L3552 )
methods of mechanical coupling:
- snap
- screw

Both methods ensure good stability, but the snap-in connectors can be smaller (e.g. LC).
Multimode Pigtail ULTIMODE PG-05S (1xLC, 62.5/125)
Multimode Pigtail ULTIMODE PG-03S (1xFC, 62.5/125)
Multimode pigtail with snap-in LC connector
( L3505 )
Multimode pigtail with a FC screw-type connection ( L3503 )
ferrule/connector size:
- 2.5 mm ferrule diameter
- 1.25 mm ferrule diameter

Connectors with 2.5 mm ferrules are the most popular and reliable products (SC, FC). But optical connectors with ferrules of the 1.25 mm diameter (e.g. LC) are winning the market due to double packing density and low cost. So, instead of one adapter and SC connector, one can install a duplex LC adapter with two LC connectors.
Single-mode Pigtail ULTIMODE PG-51S (1 x SC, 9/125)
Single-mode Pigtail ULTIMODE PG-55S (1xLC, 9/125)
Single-mode pigtail with SC/PC connector,
2.5 mm ferrule ( L3551 )
Single-mode pigtail with LC/PC connector,
1.25 mm ferrule ( L3555 )
Invisible video surveillance. DIPOL offers two new models of IR illuminators: Redbeam IRN60 940 nm M1653 - range up to 60 m, and IRN40 940 nm M1649 - range up to 40 m.

Their special feature is total invisibility to the human eye - they emit infrared radiation at the wavelength of 940 nm.

IR illuminators are used in CCTV systems in which it is necessary to monitor environments in total darkness. Infrared illuminators, similarly to the sources of visible light, have different power outputs and angles of radiation.

Near-infrared and infrared wavelengths used in CCTV range from 700 to 1000 nm. With increasing the wavelength, the sub-red light is less visible to the human eye. Many infrared illuminators have built-in filters: 750 nm (visible glowing), 830 nm (almost invisible glowing), 940 nm (the source of the IR radiation completely invisible to the human eye).
IR illuminator: Redbeam IRN60 (940nm)
IR illuminator Redbeam IRN60 M1653
In addition, the installers of CCTV systems should apply special lenses that are dedicated for use with IR illuminators. These lenses ensure correction in the infrared range (e.g. M2136, M2137, M2139, M2157). Of course, the best lenses are those with low F numbers.

To effectively use the infrared lighting at the wavelength of 940 nm, the camera(s) should have sufficient sensitivity at this wavelength. The examples are cameras based on Sony Exview image sensors. For best results, the camera(s) should be equipped with mechanical IR cut filter(s) (ICR).

The advantage of the Redbeam series is the application of specially designed LED arrays (instead of conventional sets of diodes), which, together with optical lens/es, ensure desired operational angle and distance. Due to the innovative solutions and parameters, the IR illuminators have been awarded a Gold Medal of the Securex trade fair in Poznan, Poland.

Another advantage of the arrays is the lifetime of the materials used. Standard heavy-duty IR diodes operate around 6000 hours. In the case of the arrays, the expected lifetime is about 50000 hours. It means that they can work for over 10 years (12/24 cycle)!
Network video recorders from NUUO. The NVR NV-4080 K4108 and NV-4160 K4116 from NUUO are innovative plug & play devices for full management of IP CCTV systems. The main functions of these NVRs include live monitoring, recording of video streams, playback of the archives. Due to Linux OS, they ensure stable operation and resistance to computer viruses that attack Windows(R) applications.
View of an NVR from the NUUO NVRmini series
The NVRs are used in all kinds of maintenance-free systems. In this kind of small- and medium-size systems, the NVR can be connected to any node of IP network and provide service for a number of customers (clients) with hierarchical access rights. Such systems are suitable for video surveillance of offices, factories, warehouses, stores, businesses, various buildings etc.
During regular operation, the users of the NVRs do not need to run any computers or involve computer resources. Computers are only used as clients for online access to the live and recorded video and for configuration. The management is done using Internet Explorer or client software. The former solution is convenient for the reason that it does not require additional applications, while the latter one allows the administrator to control a number of the NVRs, with assignment of individual user rights to monitor selected cameras. Using free applications called "NUUO Live Viewer" and "NUUO Playback System", it is possible to remotely monitor the cameras, browse archival recordings and search for recorded events, in particular:
  • General Motion
  • Foreign Object
  • Missing Object
  • Focus Lost
  • Camera Occlusion
This flexible NVR platform allows multi-server multi-client operation - it is possible to create simultaneous connections to up to 128 cameras. The NVRs are very quiet devices with low power consumption (78 W), much lower than in the case of PC-based or DVR-based solutions.
How to select the best access point? The selection of the access point should be based on the requirements for its functions and range of operation (output power, directivity).
To easily compare TP-LINK APs, we provide the suitable information in the table below.
 
NameTL-WA901NDTL-WA701NDTL-WA500GTL-WA5110GTL-WA5210G
CodeN2944N2942N2941N2945N2350
Transmission range

*w. additional ant.
Wi-Fi standard
802.11 n/g/b802.11 n/g/b802.11 g/b802.11 g/b802.11 g/b
Max wireless speed
300 Mb/s150Mb/s54 Mb/s54 Mb/s54 Mb/s
Antenna
3x 4 dBi1x 4 dBi1x 4 dBi1x 4 dBiDual 12 dBi
MIMO3T3R----
Output power
<100 mW<100 mW<100 mW<400 mW<500 mW
WDSYESYESYESYESYES
PoEYESYESYESYESYES
QSSYESYES---
AP mode
YESYESYESYESYES
APC mode
YESYESYESYESYES
Bridge mode
YESYESYESYESYES
Repeater mode
YESYESYESYESYES
WMM (Wi-Fi Muldimedia)YESYESYES  
AP Client Router (WISP)   YESYES
SecurityWEP, WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSKWEP, WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK

WEP, WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK

WEP, WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSKWEP, WPA, WPA2, WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK

Qingdao (Tsingtao). Qingdao city lies on the eastern coast of China and has almost 8 million inhabitants. It is probably the largest spa in the world. There is a brewery there, producing Tsingtao beer.
The brewery in Tsingtao and the exhibits in the museum of brewing
New products offered by DIPOL:
Day/Night IP Camera: ULTICAM DS-852MF-E/ICR (2.0MP)
IP High Speed Dome Camera: Sunell D1 SN-IPS54/60DN/Z36
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KC 150Mb/s 802.11n
Coaxial Cable (50 ohm): Tri-Lan 240 PVC (white) [100m]
IP camera
2.0MP+ICR
K1442
IP High Speed
Dome Camera
K1650
ULTIAIR
802.11n
N2314
50 ohm coax
Tri-Lan 240 white PVC
E1172
Worth reading:
Protection of low-voltage installations against power failures. Responsible installations powered with 12 VDC from AC/DC adapters, such as alarm and video surveillance systems, should be protected from temporary AC power outages.
Uninterrupted power supply is guaranteed by buffer power supplies. DIPOL offers two models: ZBP-13.8V/3A AWZ 300 M18287 and CS24U12V/2A M1853...
Example application of the buffer power supply M1853

How to receive programs from satellite pay-TV platform throughout the home, using a single smart card? To receive channels of a SECA MediaGuard digital platform on several TVs (up to 8), the subscribers of Cyfra+ (Poland), Digital+/Astra (Spain), Canal Digitaal (Holland), CanalSat (France), Meo (Portugal) can use single smart card (and subscription) but as many suitable sat receivers as the number of TVs, each equipped with Wireless Client Card for Clone+ (A9911). The original smart card is not put to any receiver, but to the central unit - Clone+ Wireless Smart Card Splitter (A9910) - which wirelessly transfers subscription rights to the Clone+ client cards...
On every TV set connected to the individual receiver, the users can choose and watch any of terrestrial TV or satellite programs from the pay-TV platform, and additionally - the image from the analog CCTV camera

Video transmission from several analog cameras through a single cable. Each of the installers at least once experienced the problem of sending signals from several analog cameras through a single cable. Often this is due to the fact that the site is equipped with some kind of wiring - a UTP/FTP, coaxial, or fiber optic cable (single-mode or multimode). It is worth to utilize the existing cabling...
Application of video transmitter/receiver for UTP/FTP cable.
Maximum distance - 2 km.

 
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