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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 16/2011 (April 18, 2011)
How many devils can fit on the head of a pin? In Germany, Fraunhofer Institutes in cooperation with Awaiba company have designed a micro-camera with dimensions comparable to the head of a pin. The cube-shaped camera with 1 millimeter sides has been developed mainly for disposable endoscopy applications. Due to a new type of manufacturing process, the cost will be so low that each camera can be disposed after a single use.
The low cost of the camera will be achieved thanks to integration of the image sensor with lens at an early stage of the manufacturing process, on a disc of silicon (wafer) containing about 28 000 sensors. The image sensors made in CMOS technology have a pixel size of 3 microns. One sensor consists of 62 500 such pixels.
Although the resolution of 250 x 250 pixels seems low in comparison to that of today's video cameras, it is revolutionary in the case of so small devices.
The camera image can be transmitted through a thin cable over distances up to several meters, for example to a computer with a USB port, and processed for various applications.
Possibilities of use of such small cameras go well beyond medicine, they may be, for example, built into glasses to track the movements of the driver's eyes, as a part of a system preventing him from nodding.
It is difficult to determine how many devils can fit on the end of a pin, but there is enough room to put a micro camera there...
The miniature camera alongside a disposable needle
The Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 60 institutes, each focusing on different fields of applied science. The largest European research organization was founded in 1949, currently has around 18,000 employees, mainly scientists and engineers, and an annual research budget of about 1.7 billion euros. The institutes specialize in areas such as information technology and telecommunications, microelectronics, manufacturing processes, power industry, transportation, environmental engineering, materials engineering.
More than 1.4 billion euros of the total budget come from contract research. Two thirds of the revenue is collected from contracts with industry and from publicly financed research projects. Among the accomplishments of the organization there are: MP3 standard, solar cell with the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency rate (41.1%), application for reconstructing documents from fine cut out sections, components of the H.264 standard.

Jaisalmer residents will experience it first hand. Asian countries, especially those with large surface areas, are catching up with the modern technology in telecommunications infrastructure by deploying wireless networks. Fast construction of the networks is often associated with the use of residential buildings as the bases for towers with antennas. The antennas often emit high-power signals, which may affect the health of the people living in the neighborhoods.
To what extent? Looking at the picture below, the residents of Jaisalmer will be the first to know.
Where is Jaisalmer? The answer at the end.
Fast construction of wireless networks is often associated with the use of residential buildings
as the bases for towers with antennas. Where is Jaisalmer? The answer at the end.
Recommendations for TV signal levels in subscriber outlets. Antenna installers accustomed to working with analog distribution systems have to take into account that the transition to digital terrestrial television is connected with using much lower signal levels.
The minimum signal level required for proper reception of digital terrestrial television is lower than in the case of analog TV (e.g. by 6-12 dB in the case of 64-QAM modulation, depending on FEC). It is due to the much greater efficiency of digital modulation, which is a combination of amplitude and phase modulation of the RF signal. Digital modulation schemes complicate the implementations of the transmitters and receivers, but the transmitters of the same power as the older analog ones can cover larger areas.
When designing modern installations distributing DVB-T signals, the antenna installer should take into account the recommended signal levels shown in the table below.
Recommendations for RF signal levels in subscriber outlets
for analog (D1/PAL, FM) and digital (DVB-T, DAB) signals
MediumStandardModulationChannel capacity
Minimum signal level (dBµV)Maximum signal level (dBµV)
As shown in the table, DVB-T technology imposes on the RF signals quite different limits than those of analog TV. In Poland and Hungary (64-QAM, FEC 3/4 or 5/6) the limits are 48 dBuV or 51 dBuV (minimum levels) and 74 dBuV (the maximum level).
So the required minimum signal level varies depending on the modulation scheme used, including FEC. Another example can be some Slovak transmitters that use signals with FEC=2/3, which translates into 45 dBuV minimum signal level.
Remote backup of video surveillance data. In the case of a burglary, theft, fire, flood etc., the damage may affect a part of or even the whole monitoring system, including important archives stored in this location.
The best way to protect the video footage against a loss is simultaneous recording of the images from the cameras on two media in two different physical locations.
Ultimax - Hikvision is a line of DVRs with extensive software package that allows the realization of such concepts.
Network DVR: HIKVISION/ULTIMAX DS-8108HDI-S H.264 (8-ch.)Network DVR: HIKVISION/ULTIMAX DS-8108HDI-SE H.264 (8-ch.)
Archiving on the main medium - one of the hard drives put into the 8-ch Hikvision 8108HDI-S(E) DVR,
and using a backup medium - a computer running the NVR Server software
The NVR Server application installed on a computer with sufficient disk space captures the data stream from the DVR and records it on the computer's HDD. The frame rate and image resolution is the same as of the material saved on the DVR. The access to the data is possible through the iVMS4000 application both at the computer (it is the recording server) and remotely, via the network.
The recording can be carried out according to the schedule defined on the server for each camera in continuous, motion detection, or mixed mode. The application provides information on the recorded channels, cameras, current disk space usage.
NVR Server, similarly to other applications developed for Hikvision DVRs, is free. In conjunction with the iVMS4000 application, it makes a powerful software package allowing to create complex video surveillance systems.
Vandal proof cameras. CCTV systems located in areas with a high risk of vandalism, such as in schools, parks, or prisons, should be equipped with vandal proof cameras. These cameras have metal casings, and their domes are made of polycarbonate, very durable clear plastic. This material, due to its properties, is used for windows in airplanes and for astronauts' and Formula 1 drivers' helmets.
The resistance to impacts is increased by the spherical shapes of the domes. The cameras mounted on ceilings, walls or posts/poles cover the cables so that they also eliminate these weak points of CCTV systems.
Vandal proof cameras equipped with integrated IR illuminators allow observation of dark zones. The capacity of the cameras can be further increased by application of adjustable (varifocal) lenses.
Vandal-proof Dome Camera: V-CAM 540 (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 4-9mm, IR)
The M10752 vandal proof camera with built-in IR illuminator and varifocal lens
Digifort console. The Digifort DGF-KB1000 K3081 console has been specially designed for users of Digifort systems. It enables the operator to quickly access all available functions and control all Digifort modules, while reducing the possibility of uncontrolled interference in the software.
The functionality of the device exceeds the capacity of human-machine communication provided by a conventional mouse, trackball or keyboard. The console has a multifunctional alphanumeric display and an integrated joystick allowing full control of PTZ cameras.
Digifort Console
View of the Digifort console K3081
Distinguishing features of the console:
  • Fast switching between cameras - instant access to the image from the desired channel.
  • Virtual array: quick change of the screens (previous, next, full screen, change of order).
  • Ability to enlarge the selected object to full screen.
  • Toolbar hiding option.
  • Quick change of privacy zones for each camera.
  • Support for defined actions that can be taken after motion detection.
  • Opening and closing virtual on-screen keyboard.
  • Virtual mouse - control of the cursor from the keyboard, including functions of the left and right button.
  • Full control of PTZ cameras: iris, focus, zoom, pan, tilt, recalling presets, patrol function, PTZ lock.
  • Playback mode: starting playback, selecting cameras and time, fast forward/backward, switching between video clips.
  • Displaying camera status on the LCD display.
The console cooperates with Digifort Explorer K3001, Digifort Standard K3002, Digifort Professional K3003, and Digifort Enterprise K3004 versions which can be extended with license plate recognition module K3020 and image analysis module K3040. The free trial version of the Digifort software is available here.
Easier power distribution - PoE switch TP-LINK TL-SF1008P. The PoE switch TL-SF1008P N29930 enables smooth data transmission in 10/100 Mbps Ethernet networks. Its eight RJ45 ports support auto-negotiation function, four of them provide power over Ethernet (PoE function).
The switch automatically detects devices compliant with IEEE 802.3af standard and provides them with power supply. This feature allows the user to expand the network coverage in areas where there is no access to AC power lines/outlets and to employ access points, IP cameras, IP phones, etc.

The switch has the priority* function which helps protect main functions of the system in case of overloading. The maximum power consumption (by all the PoE devices) cannot exceed 53 W. In case of overloading, the switch will cut off the power to devices connected to ports with lower priority.
PoE Switch: TP-LINK TL-SF1008P (8x10/100Mb/s incl. 4xPoE)
The ports 1...4 of the TL-SF1008P N29930 switch provide PoE
Main features:
  • Four PoE ports (each of them ensuring communication and power supply for a network device via a single UTP cable)
  • No need for installation or configuration
  • Max capacity of each PoE port: 15.4 W
  • Total PoE capacity: 53 W
  • Support for (PD) PoE devices compliant with IEEE802.3af standard
  • Support for bandwidth control in full duplex (IEEE802.3x) and a back-pressure function in half-duplex mode
  • Support for auto-learning and auto-aging, 1k MAC address entries
  • LED indicators providing information on status/speed/activity/PoE
An example application of the device
India. Jaisalmer - is a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan, located near the border with Pakistan. It has a population of about 80,000 people. The town is "crowned" by the Jaisalmer Fort, built in 1156 and preserved in very good condition, containing a palace and several ornate Jain temples.
The old fort and the modern telecommunications infrastructure
Houses of wealthy merchants and a poor district
New products offered by DIPOL:
High Speed HDMI Cable with Ethernet (v1.4, 5m)
Optical Node TERRA OD-003 (FTTH receiver)
SMPS AC/DC Adapter ZI-5000 12V/5A (for CCTV cameras)
Antenna support URL-38Z50 (galvanized)
HDMI 1.4 cable
FTTH node
Worth reading:

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Protect - Portable DVR Cameras
Welcome to the video on the camera DVR
9-cable system - multiswitch installations. The most flexible multiswitch installations in multi-story buildings are based on 9-cable system (signals from two Quatro LNBs and terrestrial TV antenna). On each floor we employ the splitter providing signals to multiswitches. It allows to shape the network according to actual requirements - we may deploy practically unlimited number of outlets...
SAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-510SAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-510SAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-510SAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-5109/16 Multiswitch: Terra MSR-916 (active terrestrial path)9/12 Multiswitch: Terra MSR-912 (active terrestrial path)
Remote monitoring of dispersed grocery stores. he owner of a network of small grocery stores in Belchatow, Poland, wanted to have at his office a video preview of all the stores. The office was located outside the city. In addition, the investor wanted to get high quality images for a very competitive price.
The best solution available on the market was to install in each store ULTIMAX 204 M72040 DVR ...
Ceiling Dome Camera: CAM 508 (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 2.8-12mm)Ceiling Dome Camera: CAM 508 (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 2.8-12mm)Network DVR: ULTIMAX-204 (H.264, 4 channels)Network DVR: ULTIMAX-204 (H.264, 4 channels)Network DVR: ULTIMAX-204 (H.264, 4 channels)Ceiling Dome Camera: CAM 508 (550 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 2.8-12mm)Outdoor Color Camera: VF-515 IR
Block diagram of the distributed monitoring system
Panorama IP Camera: PIXORD PD636E (2MP, H.264, Fish-Eye)
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