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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 43/2010 (Dec 20, 2010)
Dear Readers!

Have a wonderful and joyful
Christmas

May the coming 2011 year be peaceful and happy,
and bring you much satisfaction!
Editorial staff
DIPOL's Christmas Tree
DIPOL's Cherub

The next issue will be published on January 3, 2011.
Will Apple shake the laptop landscape? In April next year, we should expect the launch of a new generation of professional line of Apple laptops - MacBook Pro. The company is known for its unique market insights. It usually correctly guess the expectations of customers, and sometimes even shapes them by clever marketing. No wonder that the prospective laptops stir up emotions of the market competitors and potential users even now.

What rabbit will be pulled out of the Apple's hat? To be "trendy", must we get rid of the old laptops and buy the new MacBook Pro?

We do not know many construction details, but the first scraps of information allow to guess the general concept and basic functionality of the new laptops. The laptop is to be equipped with SSD drive instead of HDD, which is an understandable tendency. But then, lack of an optical drive and the implementation of a new type of connector developed by Intel, clearly shows a new approach to the use and functionality of portable computers.
Similarly to the previous floppy disks, nowadays optical media begin to lose their usefulness as the carriers of information. They are effectively replaced by flash memory, and above all, through the direct use of network resources - both for computational processing and data archiving/retrieving.
A modern laptop should use "cloud computing"and online srvices for file storage, backup and sharing. For this purpose one needs efficient means for Internet connectivity. This brings us to the element that will change not only the functioning of laptops, but also of many components of home electronics equipment - Light Peak connector.
Apple will probably be the first to apply the innovative connector on a large scale. Additionally, in November the company received a patent on a combination of the Light Peak with the proprietary MagSafe power cable. This will allow to use a single power and data adapter with a number of interfaces for communicating with the laptop.
Application of the new connector based on fiber-optic technology will allow for faster data exchange with the network, making the laptop one of network components. It may fundamentally change the performance of the device and the scope of applications, and will give further impetus to the development of fiber-optic networks.
Block diagram of the LightPeak connector combined with MagSafe power system - Apple's patent
Light Peak is a proprietary optical cable interface designed by Intel to connect devices in a peripheral bus. It can replace current buses/interfaces such as SCSI, SATA, eSATA, USB, FireWire, PCI Express, HDMI, Display Port, and even Ethernet.
The technology offers massive bandwidth of 10 Gb/s, and this is just the beginning - the plans envision 100 Gb/s by 2020. The transmission speed of 10 Gb/s allows to transfer a full length HD movie typically found on Blu-Ray discs within 30 seconds! Apple goes a step further by developing a connector that, in addition to supporting data transmission, will also supply peripheral devices.

Will the interface be a panacea for excessive multitude of current solutions? We can observe the tendency of the electronics and computer industry to limit the number of different interfaces. Such unification would be advantageous for both the manufacturers and users, allowing along the way to "skip" various restrictions of the currently used standards. Even the USB3.0 interface, finalized at the beginning of this year and also providing high bandwidth (5 Gb/s), imposes severe distance limitations (similarly to HDMI).
The Intel's technology theoretically allows for combining in one connector of all these earlier mentioned interfaces by using the appropriate protocol stack and data transmission over a single-mode fiber. It also provides support for connecting devices in daisy chains. As an example would be a situation in which all peripheral devices, such as satellite receiver, media player, Blu-ray player, PC, are connected in a daisy chain, so that only one of them connects directly to the TV.
However, it does not seem probable that Light Peak technology will shortly drive out such standards like USB or Ethernet. It's hard to imagine that the popular USB after 14 years of triumphs could be quickly replaced by another interface. On the other hand, devotees of conspiracy theories claim that Intel has intentionally delayed the implementation of the USB3.0 interface on its platforms, because of the newly developed technology.
Antennas are illegal in that country. It is difficult to find interesting antenna installations in country where satellite dishes are prohibited, and since 2005 terrestrial television broadcasting is practically monopolized by one company. However, the situation does not arise from political constraints, but is the result of high urbanization, comparatively small market, and administrative decision that public space cannot be spoiled by satellite dishes. Instead, more than 99% of households have cable TV.
Which country are we talking about here? - Answer at the end of this issue.
There are no satellite dishes and it is difficult to find terrestrial TV antennas as well...
- they are only on older buildings and dorms. Where is it? - Answer at the end of this issue.
Optical transmission in cable TV network - TERRA MOS211. Cable television network WizjaPlus in Debica, Poland, has about 2600 users. Its owner decided to modernize the system. The trunk of the network has been based on fiber optic technology. This professional solution employs high-class optical transmitters from TERRA.
Optical transmitter TERRA MOS-211A
Optical transmitter TERRA MOS-211A
R81720
The signal from the headend coming through a coaxial cable (copper medium) is converted into light signal and transmitted via single-mode optical fiber in the second transmission window (optical medium). The system employs two optical transmitters of TERRA MOS series with DFB laser transmitters of different output power, 6 dBm and 12 dBm. With the use of dedicated receivers, the optical signals can be transmitted over distances up to 30 km and 60 km, respectively.
The TERRA MOS-211A and TERRA MOS-211D transmitters
in the cable TV network
In the case of the network, the signal is transmitted over a distance of about 4 km and split by using Fibrain optical splitters to individual housing developments equipped with optical signal receivers.
Distinguishing features of optical transmitters from TERRA MOS series:
  • automatic thermo-cooler control for constant laser temperature
  • input signal level measurement
  • user-selectable automatic/manual RF level control
  • AGC circuit for constant laser power
  • selectable output power levels
Removable hard drives in CCTV systems. Simple CCTV systems, after using the whole disk space, overwrite the oldest files. More responsible systems may require long-term data archiving. Solutions with disk arrays are expensive, and the devices consume quite a lot of energy.
HDD SEAGATE 1 TB SV35.5 (for CCTV DVRs)Additional 3.5HDD SEAGATE 1 TB SV35.5 (for CCTV DVRs)Additional 3.5Color CCTV Camera: n-cam 680 (600 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 2.8-12mm, IR 30m)Compact CCTV Camera: n-cam 640 (600 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 4-9mm, IR 30m)CCTV Network DVR: TREND 250X08 (H.264, 8 channels) CCTV Network DVR: TREND 250X16 (H.264, 16 channels) Color CCTV Camera: n-cam 680 (600 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 2.8-12mm, IR 30m)Compact CCTV Camera: n-cam 640 (600 TVL, Sony Super HAD II CCD, 0.01 lx, 4-9mm, IR 30m)
Application of removable HDDs in a CCTV system
In the case of systems based on TREND250x08 M72508 or TREND250x16 M72516 DVRs, a simple and cheap solution is to use additional drive rack drawers M72501. They can house e.g. HDDs SEAGATE 1 TB SV35.5 M89265.
A hard disk placed in the drawer and inserted into the recorder is formatted and used as the storage medium. It can be locked inside the DVR with the key. The function of overriding recordings may be blocked in the DVR's options, and the user can be informed about lack of free disk space by an audible alarm and/or e-mail.
The full hard drive can be quickly replaced. The archival material on the HDD can be protected against the access of unauthorized people by storing it in any suitable location.
TREND DVRs is a series of modern digital video recorders capable of recording in each channel CCTV images with resolution of 4CIF (704 x 576) at 6 frames per second, or with resolution of 2CIF (704 x 288) at 12 fps. They can be used in any monitoring system that requires high-resolution recordings, preview in real time and efficient compression standard, but does not operate in a very dynamic environment.
H.264 compression and compatibility with hard drives of capacity up to 2TB enable recording of very large amounts of video data. VGA output with maximum resolution of 1920x1080 px (Full HD) can cooperate with LCD or CRT monitors. Additional video output (BNC - CVBS) provides the same information with resolution limited by PAL or NTSC standard.

Functions of I/O ports in modern CCTV cameras. Modern signal processors in high-end analog cameras allow to introduce elements of image analysis and work control. The access to the functions is provided by Input/Output ports. By changing the voltage on individual pins (e.g. by shorting some of them to the ground) we can control some functions of the cameras. Voltage levels on other pins can trigger external devices.
One of the most modern digital signal processors is Sony Effio, employed in the camera Sunell SN-BXC5930CDN M11209. The 8-pin I/O port of the camera allows to:
  • obtain information about the camera mode,
  • get signal of motion detection event,
  • switch the camera to B/W mode (above the automatic threshold).
I/O socket pinout of Sunell cameras

Pinout description of the M11209 camera (wire colors of additional cable; H&L - logical levels, of about 3 V and 0 V respectively):
  • Pins 1 (black), 2 (brown), 3 (orange): not used;
  • Pin 4 (blue): information on mode of work (H - color, L - B/W) - the levels can be used for control of an additional IR illuminator (the camera switches to B/W mode in low light);
  • Pin 5 (green): alarm output - motion detection (H - no motion, L - motion) - can cooperate with alarm input in a DVR or with an independent alarm system;
  • Pin 6 (yellow): ground
  • Pin 7 (white): external control of mode of work (H - B/W, L - color) - possibility to adjust mode of work to specific requirements;
  • Pin 8 (red): 3.3 VDC output.
In the case of SN-468C/W M11206 and SN-586C/B M11208 cameras the active pins are 6-8, and the pin 8 provides 5 VDC voltage. The cameras can be optionally equipped with RS-232 port that can be used for managing them via a PC and dedicated software. This option uses pin 1 as RS232TX, pin 2 as RS232RX, and pin 3 as RS232GND.
Day/Night Box Camera: SN-468C/W (540 TVL, Sony EX-View CCD, ICR, 0.008 lx)
Day/Night Box Camera: SN-586C/B (WDR, 540 TVL, Wide Dynamic Pixim, ICR, 0.5 lx)
Day/Night Box Camera: SN-BXC5930CDN (WDR, 650 TVL, Sony Effio-E, ICR, 0.03 lx)
Sunell SN-468C/W
day/night, 540 TVL, Sony
EX-View CCD, ICR, 0.008 lx
M11206
Sunell SN-586C/B
day/night, WDR, 540 TVL, Wide
Dynamic Pixim, ICR, 0.5 lx
M11208
Sunell SN-BXC5930CDN
day/night, WDR, 650 TVL, Sony
Effio-E, ICR, 0.03 lx
M11209
Monitoring of building materials storage yard. The owner of such a yard decided to install a video surveillance system. The main cameras are high speed PTZ domes ACTi CAM-6630 K1216 which allow for detailed observation of the site. The gate is monitored by the camera Pixord PL621E K1533. Due to IR illuminator, license plates of the vehicles entering the area can be recognized even in complete darkness. The office rooms and cash desks are monitored by Pixord P606 K1530 cameras. They ensure high resolution of the video and, due to small size, do not draw excessive attention.
Megapixel network camera: PIXORD P606 (2.0 Mpx, H.264, IR)Outdoor IP Camera: Pixord PL-621E (2Mpx, H.264, PoE)Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 417SBMegapixel network camera: PIXORD P606 (2.0 Mpx, H.264, IR)Megapixel network camera: PIXORD P606 (2.0 Mpx, H.264, IR)Software Package: NUUO SCB-IP+04Software Package: NUUO SCB-IP+04Outdoor IP Camera: Pixord PL-621E (2Mpx, H.264, PoE)Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 417SBWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KCIP Speed Dome Camera: ACTi CAM-6630 IP Speed Dome Camera: ACTi CAM-6630 Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KCIP Speed Dome Camera: ACTi CAM-6630 Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KC
The general layout of the IP CCTV system based on ACTi and Pixord cameras
Due to the practical inability to put any cables in the ground, the video streams from the PTZ cameras are transmitted wirelessly through Ultiair N2311 access points. The indoor cameras are connected to the N29940 switch via NETSET UTP cable.

All the cameras are integrated into one unified system by server running NUUO K3104 software.
During working hours the video streams are recorded on a continuous basis, but later the system switches into motion detection mode and triggers recording only in the case of determining such an event.
The application can automatically send alerts via SMS or e-mails, any time when an alarm is activated by one of the cameras. Use of 3GPP service allows the owner to monitor the site via mobile phone.
GSM repeaters - adjustment of the input signal. A serious problem during the installation of a GSM repeater is to ensure adequate signal level at the input of the amplifier. In the case of too weak or too strong signal, the system will not function properly (broken calls, problems to establish connections etc.).
View of the attenuator installed in Signal GSM repeaters
A convenient solution to this problem, implemented in Signal A6765, A6775, A6785 repeaters, is the built-in attenuator allowing to adjust the level of the input signal (attenuation 0-31 dB, step 1 dB). The suitable attenuation level is indicated by green color of the LEDs (Alarm Low and Alarm High) located on the front panel. In addition, the AGC function of the devices allows to compensate for the influence of changeable propagation conditions.
GSM Amplifier/Repeater SIGNAL GSM-305
GSM Amplifier/Repeater SIGNAL GSM-505
GSM Amplifier/Repeater SIGNAL GSM-505
SIGNAL GSM-305
A6765
SIGNAL GSM-505
A6775
SIGNAL GSM-1205
A6785
GSM/DCS/UMTS Antenna: TRANS-DATA KYZ8.2/9.5
GSM/DCS/UMTS antenna TRANS-DATA KYZ8.2/9.5
A741030
The outdoor antenna dedicated for GSM amplifiers is TRANS-DATA GSM/DCS/UMTS KYZ8.2/9.5 A741030 with gain of 8.2 dBi and half-power angle of 60/90 degrees (V/H). These parameters help installer to quickly pair the antenna with the suitable base station.
Singapore. The name Singapore is derived from two Sanskrit words: Singa (lion) and pura (city), hence it is sometimes called the "Lion City". The economy of Singapore is one of the most liberal in the world. According to the Index of Economic Freedom, it takes second place in the world after Hong Kong.
In 2010 Singapore experienced another economic boom. In the first quarter the economy grew by 46%. The GDP growth of 18% in the first half of 2010 makes it the fastest-growing economy in the world.
Singapore is the world's fourth leading financial centre, after London, New York and Tokyo. Its port is the second in the world, after Shanghai, in terms of volume of containers handled.
The living standards of Singaporeans are among the highest in the world. In the coming years all residents will have free access to the Internet, funded by the state.
The period before Christmas 2010 in Singapore
Video Balun Set: 1VP-C (2 pcs., BNC lead)
HDMI Extender Signal-HD (2x Cat 5e, 50m)
Switching Power Supply 18VDC/1A
Wall Antenna Mount: USL-38/300-S (angled, Al-Zn coating)
Video balun
M16658
HDMI extender
H3602
Switching Power Supply
N93318 (18 VDC /1 A)
Wall antenna mount
E8731

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