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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 38/2010 (Nov. 15, 2010)
The European turmoil over DVB-T. In relation to its level of development, Europe is lagging behind the rest of the world in the implementation of modern television technologies. The need for rapid digitalization is indisputable. It is the condition for the introduction of high-definition television and 3DTV.
There are two main factors that hinder the development of digital terrestrial television (DTT) in Europe. The first is the wrong policy to establish a final standard. The second is the behind-the-scenes but effective resistance of European television monopolies.
Adoption of the original DVB-T (MPEG2) standard laid emphasis on the development of digital TV in standard definition. This stemmed from the notion that with a limited frequency spectrum it would allow a larger number of new programs. The standard has been adopted by the pioneers of digitalization on the continent - Spain, France, Germany. Already during that implementations, it turned out that the standard imposes constraints on the development of HD television.
Other European countries, bearing in mind the limitation, began to build their digital television infrastructures using a modified version - DVB-T with H.264 compression - much more suitable for broadcasting high-definition channels. In the meantime, the standardization bodies accepted the target DVB-T2 (H.264) standard showing a rapid market expansion this year.
In 2009, the signal to the start of DVB-T2 was given by the United Kingdom. The positive effects of the implementation of DVB-T2 services in the UK (Freeview HD and BBC One HD) have led to an increased interest in this technology in continental Europe.
In October this year, Italy became the first country in the world which officially began broadcasting the entire set of channels in DVB-T2. On November 1, Sweden showed how to implement digital television systems - since the first day of the launch of DVB-T2 the signal has been covering 70% of the country, with the prospect of embracing 90% of its area next year. So far, the Swedish DVB-T2 package contains only High Definition channels (free SVT-1 and SVT-2, paid MTV, National Geographic, and Canal +). A similar undertaking is planned in Finland on the beginning of 2011.
Advanced testing of DVB-T2 is underway in Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, and Spain - the countries which have previously launched digital television broadcasting with the use of MPEG-2 compression.
The prospect of the implementation of DVB-T2 is uncertain in countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Portugal, where the less advanced standard (DVB-T version 1) has been combined with the more efficient H.264 compression method.
In conclusion, Europeans currently use three DTT standards, from which the target and the best is DVB-T2, being in the initial stage of implementation. This chaos results in higher prices for the transmission equipment and receivers and slows down the exchange of technology. However, the situation is profitable for current broadcasters, who without new investments have bigger profits from advertising, with limited competition.
It is also worth noting that China implements its own equivalent of DVB-T2, called DMB-T/H, which is even more technologically advanced than the European counterpart.
DTT standards in the world
In what way is DVB-T2 different from DVB-T? Both transmission standards use OFDM modulation (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex), but DVB-T2 provides more advanced modes - increased number of carriers (available modes 1k, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, 32k, 16k extended, 32k extended) and higher modulation efficiency (due to advanced 256QAM). Such rapid transfer of data in a radio channel requires new techniques for error correction. DVB-T2 employs Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) algorithms. A milestone in the field of digital modulation has also been the introduction of Rotated Constellations, developed in order to provide greater immunity to interference.
DVB-T2 offers nearly double maximum bitrate within the same transponder (50.34 Mb/s) in comparison to DVB-T (31.66 Mb/s), providing greater prospects for development of HD and three-dimensional television.

1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6
1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8
Protection interval
1/4, 19/256, 1/8, 19/128, 1/16, 1/32, 1/1281/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32
Numbers of carriers
1K, 2K, 4K, 8K, 16K, 16K ext., 32K, 32K ext.2K, 8K
Scattered pilots1%, 2%, 4%, 8% of the total number8% of the total number
Continual pilots0,35% of the total number2.6% of the total number
Bands1.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 MHz5, 6, 7, 8 MHz
Max. bitrate50.34 Mb/s31.66 Mb/s
Phuket, Thailand.
A nest of stray currents...
Solve difficult problems by using TERRA multiswitches. It turns out that the complexity of a SMATV system does not always depend on the number of subscriber outlets. Some installations with a dozen outlets can be more demanding for the designer and installer than, theoretically much more complex, large SMATV systems with several hundred outlets.
The sources of the major problems are typically large distances between network elements (the dish, amplifier, multiswitch/es) and large differences in distances from the multiswitch/es to subscriber outlets.
The problem consists in providing signals with levels within specified range, irrespective of the different distances. The signals at the input/s of the multiswitch cannot overdrive its active components and the tuners of the receivers connected to the nearest outlets, whereas the most distant outlets have to provide signals above a defined level.
In some case of a sports stadium, the SMATV system was to include two buildings about 90 meters away. The roof of the stadium hindered installation of a second satellite dish. The signals had to be transmitted from one dish via coaxial cables.
The first multiswitch has been located about 30 meters from the dish, the outlets have been deployed within range of 10 to 80 m. Such a system does not cause a problem due to a large number of outlets, but because of its topology resulting from the layout of the buildings.
Diagram of the system in SatNet utility
Due to a considerable length, the 5-cable bundle uses low-loss, gel-filled coaxial cable in PE sheath, featuring high screening efficiency - Triset-11 E1017. Connections between the multiswitches and outlets have been made with Triset-113 E1015 cable. The system employs Terra devices - MSV multiswitches (R70712 and R70716), SA-501 R70501 amplifier and SS-504 R70515 SAT/TV splitter.
SatNet program enabled the installer an analysis of the possible problems (e.g. it showed that connection of the SA-501 amplifier before the SS-504 splitter is not a good solution) and verification of settings.
As an example, the following diagrams present frequency characteristics of the terrestrial TV signals in the outermost outlets. It is clear that the first diagram (on the left) shows problems with terrestrial channels, but only in the upper part of the UHF band. The farthest outlet in the second building (in the second diagram) provides proper signal level in the whole TV band.
The levels of the terrestrial TV signals in the outermost outlets
The problem occurring in the first diagram was solved by using an additional amplifier (TERRA HSA-001R6 R82320) at the output of the multiswitch. Since the frequency range of the amplifier encompasses 87-862 MHz and 950-2400 MHz bands, it is an ideal device for any multiswitch system where the cable connecting a multiswitch output with an end outlet is very long. The amplifier passes DC power and DiSEqC signals.

SatNet program developed by TERRA company allows to emulate the operation of a multiswitch system, test different configurations of active and passive components of the network, find optimum settings. Typically, the whole designing process takes about 30 minutes.

This freeware software can be downloaded from DIPOL ftp server.
Designing SMATV systems with SatNet software from TERRA.
Increased potential of Hikvision/Ultimax DVRs. iVMS4500 software package allows remote management and monitoring of video surveillance systems based on Hikvision/Ultimax DVRs. The latest version which supports Android operating system was launched at the end of October. So, all the most popular PDAs and smartphones can become part of the monitoring system. The application offers various functions, depending on the platform. The main advantages include:
  • network configuration (defining network devices, configuring and saving network settings);
  • defining data streams, resolutions, frame rates, image quality;
  • setting video parameters;
  • performing PTZ control;
  • capturing still images.
IP Camera ULTICAM DS-852MF-E (2.0 Mpix)
iVMS4500 software integrates all popular systems of smartphones
The software is available for all popular platforms: Symbian 3rd, BlackBerry, iPhone, WindowsMobile, Android. For older phones with Java support there is a special, somewhat simplified version.
IVMS4500 software package is free. It is perfect solution for users who want to have maximum control over the security system in their house, for the owners and managers of businesses wishing to gain access to the monitoring system installed in their facilities, as well as for the security guards patrolling selected areas.
The software cooperates with Hikvision/Ultimax DVRs of the following types (series): M73040, M73080, M73160 (7300); M76080, M76081, M76160, M76161 (8100HDI); M78080, M78160 (8100HFI).
Additionally, the utilities are supported by Ultimax 104 M71040 and 204 M72040, and IP cameras Ulticam K1441.
The suitable utilities can be downloaded from the product pages of the devices at
Sony Effio-E DSP series. Enhanced Features and Fine Image Processor in Entry level version has been offered since July 2010. The processor can cooperate with CCD image sensors having (horizontally) from 510 to as much as 960 pixels (the horizontal video resolution can exceed 650 TV lines).
The analog information from the image sensor enters Analog Front End (CXD4816GG), where it is converted into a digital form and provided to "Effio" image processor. This Digital Signal Processor (DSP) performs advanced operations including image analysis and image modifications, depending on the selected functions (e.g. motion detection, privacy masking, noise reduction, HLC, ATR). The processor has 2 analog outputs (PAL and NTSC) and digital output compliant with ITU-RBT.625 (protocol for transmitting uncompressed digital data).
Block diagram of the "Effio-E" system

Main features and functions of "Effio":
  • increase in horizontal resolution to over 650 TVL
Examination of the horizontal resolution of the image from a camera with "Effio",
performed with the use of the method developed by Jeita association from Japan,
shows a result close to 700 TVL (with 960H image sensor)
  • higher signal to noise ratio by using special filters which smooth the image but preserve sharp edges
New 2D-NR allows to preserve sharp edges, new 3D-NR lowers blurring effect in the case of moving objects
(the upper and lower pictures on the right)
On the left - the images with switched-off noise reduction, in the middle - with conventional filters
  • perfect color reproduction, thanks to a wide range of tracking white balance ("white" color temperature ranging from 1800 K to 10500 K)
On the left - images from a conventional camera , on the right - with "Effio-E" DSP
  • ATR (Adaptive Tone Reproduction) function which lowers the contrast between the darkest and brightest areas and allows to see tones and details in the both parts of the image.
The influence of ATR function (on the right) on readability of the image
(A - in the brightest area, B - in the darkest area)

Online video from the day/night Sunell SN-BXC5930CDN camera M11209 (equipped with Sony Effio-E DSP), digitalized by ACTi TCD-2100 ( K2150 ) video server - note the performance of the camera at night.
Krakow, Cieplownicza - test camera
The use of audio in conjunction with CCTV. More and more cameras are equipped with audio modules. In many countries the use of audio surveillance requires a court order, however usually there are no constrains on voice transmission from the operator of the system to the public or various services. An important advantage of such communication channel is direct voice connection with a specific location, observed by the camera. The possibility of voice transmission is increasingly being taken into consideration at the design stage of surveillance systems. In the case of IP technology there is no need for separate cables.
In the case of city video surveillance systems the voice broadcasting feature can significantly improve the safety of the people in the area. Such systems installed on parking lots can make it easy for the personnel to direct traffic.
In the case of sentinel sites the designer should consider a set of cameras for mutual surveillance and bidirectional communication.

An example of a simple solution based on IP cameras is an audio-video connection using K1530 or K1531 cameras. Connecting them to computers running Windows 2000/XP/Vista/Windows 7 systems, anyone can create a link between any two locations in the world. To guard the link against uncontrolled data interception by third parties, the connection can be additionally encrypted and tunneled by creating a VPN.
Megapixel network camera: PIXORD P606 (2.0 Mpx, H.264, IR)
Wireless megapixel network camera: PIXORD P606W<br /> (2.0 Mpx, H.264, IR)
Megapixel network camera
PIXORD P606 (2.0 Mpx, H.264)
Wireless megapixel network camera
PIXORD P606W (2.0 Mpx, H.264)
It is possible to establish a multi-camera video conference opening next windows in the browser. The connection setup requires only IP addresses of the cameras.
The Pixord P606 K1530 and P606W K1530 K1531 cameras ensure smooth video with stunning detail.
Megapixel network camera: PIXORD P606 (2.0 Mpx, H.264, IR)Wireless megapixel network camera: PIXORD P606W<br /> (2.0 Mpx, H.264, IR)
A video conference window
ULTIAIR - monitoring of parking lots. Installation of a classical video surveillance system in a functioning parking lot is expensive and time-consuming. A modern and safe solution to the problems is wireless transmission. Application of efficient and stable ULTIAIR devices allows to install IP surveillance system very quickly. The camera points can easily be moved to other desired positions.
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 417SBWireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KCIP Speed Dome Day/Night Camera: ACTi CAM-6621 (MPEG-4)IP Speed Dome Day/Night Camera: ACTi CAM-6621 (MPEG-4)Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KCIP Speed Dome Day/Night Camera: ACTi CAM-6621 (MPEG-4)Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KC
Monitoring of a parking lot e.g. of a shopping moll
Network setup boils down to the programming of the devices, which takes a few minutes, and adjusting the transmission power.

Ultiair devices
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