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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 28/2010 (Sept. 6, 2010)
Google's challenge - "Think Big With a Gig". In February 2010, Google announced to connect some 500 000 subscribers in the United States to ultra-high speed broadband Internet network, by the end of December this year. This network will enable transmission speeds of over 1 Gbps. This means about 100-fold increase compared to the average speed of broadband Internet in the US. Development of high-speed Internet transmission is the basis for Google's new business concepts, including IPTV.
Although many experts think that Google will not undertake to build the infrastructure on its own and will rather use the network of one of the major operators (Verizon, Comcast, AT&T, Qwest), the declaration is a real challenge for all Internet service providers and a point of reference.
Philip Santoro, the spokesman of Verizon, alluding to the Google's slogan "Think Big With a Gig", said: "We are not competing with things [Google is] planning... They may be thinking about competing with things we already have. We have the network in place today." Those words were uttered at the end of August, after launching by Verizon the first commercial gigabit link in Massachusetts.

Hopes for quick development of the service are connected with the fact that this undertaking is based on the existing Verizon FiOS operating over fiber-optic communications network, and the practical speed of 800 Mbit/s has been achieved over a distance of about 650 km. The employed devices use GPON technology (see the paragraph below) and come from Motorola (theoretical upstream of 1.2 Gbit/s, downstream of 2.4 Gbit/s).
In the autumn and early next year, many operators plan to start commercial services of gigabit Internet, also in Europe - it seems that the "provocative" Google's slogan has produced a positive result - an acceleration in the deployment of optical networks of the next generation - FTTH.
The main factor limiting the development of high-speed Internet is so-called "last mile". High-bandwidth gigabit backbones have to be extended to local networks and links to the end users.
Among different options of cable technology, the most suitable to fill this gap is fiber optic technology, especially PON (Passive Optical Network). PON uses a point-to-multipoint architecture that allows to deliver triple-play services (TV, Internet, telephony) via a single fiber. The passive network does not need any additional power supply - the active equipment is deployed only in the terminal nodes. This is a great advantage to build a transmission channel with a length of up to 20 km, with components powered only by the operator and customer. The distribution of signals is carried out using passive elements - optical fibers and splitters.

A PON network consists of:
  • Optical Line Termination (OLT),
  • Optical Network Unit (ONU) - optical network equipment in the local distribution point.
If the optical link comes directly to the end user (FTTH), it includes Optical Network Termination (ONT).

Classification of PON:
  • APON (ATM PON),
  • BPON (Broadband PON),
  • GPON (Gigabit PON),
  • EPON (Ethernet PON).
GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) is currently the most popular optical technology used for bridging the "last mile". GPON offers many possible transfer rates, but now the most popular choice is 2.488 Gbit/s (downstream) and 1.244 Gbit/s (upstream).
Photo competition - "Engagingly about Antennas".
Engagingly about Antennas - 9th DIPOL's Summer Holiday Contest 2010
Engagingly about Antennas - 9th DIPOL's Summer Holiday Contest 2010
Engagingly about Antennas - 9th DIPOL's Summer Holiday Contest 2010
A drying place
Magdalena Szurek
A jo vetel szarnyakat ad
Molnar Tibor
To catch the signal ...
Janusz Szymula
Why the rising popularity of small antennas on balconies? The answer is simple - digital DVB-T signals allow to eliminate the "ghosts" that forced the users of analog TV to place their antennas as high as possible (usually somewhere on the roof) to minimize reflected signals. Therefore, the simplest solution for individual reception of digital terrestrial television is to use Signal HDA-5000 A6040 - a compact DVB-T antenna suitable for mounting on a balcony or a facade of a building.
The A6040 antenna combines simple design with good receiving parameters (quad dipoles). The employed low-noise amplifier is specially dedicated to receiving DVB-T signals. The antenna is ideally suited for areas with good and average level of terrestrial TV signals (as well as can be used for analog TV signals in non-problematic areas), allowing to receive signals over distances up to 20-30 kilometers from the transmitter. This aesthetic and unobtrusive device ensures correct reception of SD and HD channels (it may depend on local conditions).
But there is another reason for mounting antennas on balconies - in homes connected to cable TV. Some cable operators have not launched HD channels yet, so the subscribers having modern televisions can take advantage of high resolution only by receiving terrestrial HD broadcasts.
To connect additional signals from the antenna, it is necessary to use an appropriate switch. The cheapest solution is the manual cable TV/ DVB-T switch E2022.
Outdoor Digital TV Antenna Signal HDA-5000
Signal HDA-5000 A6040
(difficult to spot - to the right
of the satellite dish)
Outdoor digital TV antenna Signal HDA-5000 A6040
Let's compare it with a Yagi...
...or popular broadband antenna
DVB-T/Cable TV Signal Switch
DVB-T/Cable TV Signal Switch
E2022
Choosing a lens for a megapixel camera. Installers often face the problem of selecting appropriate lenses for megapixel cameras. Some sellers recommend to use popular lenses dedicated for analog cameras with a resolution of 752 x 582 pixels. However, such savings can crucially affect the quality of the resultant images. Given that the popular 2-megapixel cameras provide five times more pixels, the normal lenses appear to be "weak" for them - one pixel of an analog camera corresponds to five pixels of the 2-megapixel camera.
At first glance, the difference between the images captured with an ordinary lens and megapixel lens may seem to be insignificant, but it is clearly visible when using digital zoom. The contrast is mainly due to different optical lenses used in each kind of the device. Megapixel lenses use the latest technical solutions to obtain images of the highest quality.

We have tested two lenses:
  • JENSEN 3.5-8 mm M F1.4 M2230,
  • Megapixel lens UltiEye 3-8 mm IR F1.0 M2253.
The lens were used with 2 Mpx camera PIXORD P600E K1532. The object was viewed from a distance of 8 meters.
On the left - image from PIXORD K1532 camera with a regular CCTV lens (JENSEN M2230 ),
on the right - image from the camera with megapixel lens (UltiEye M2253 )
On the left - magnified part of the image from PIXORD K1532 camera with the JENSEN M2230 lens,
on the right - the same part of the image captured with the camera with UltiEye M2253 megapixel lens
TREND DVRs - so much for so little. We offer now a new line of products which allows to build low-cost but very effective CCTV systems. The TREND 250 line of quality CCTV DVRs includes 4-channel model M72504, 8-channel model M72508, and 16-channel model M72516.
The distinguishing features of the TREND 250 series are superior quality and functionality of the devices, including:
  • excellent image quality with H.264 video compression
  • real-time operation system: simultaneous recording, playback, monitoring, archiving
  • flexible configuration - independently for each channel
  • audio recording with G.726 compression (for each video channel)
  • BNC and VGA outputs (operating simultaneously). Max VGA resolution of FullHD (1920x1080 pixels)
  • recordings of resolution up to 4CIF at 6 fps (constant frame rate) or up to 12 fps (variable frame rate)
  • maximum recording speed of 25 fps (each channel)
  • simple searching and presentation of recordings on the timeline
  • simultaneous playback of recordings from four channels
  • two USB 2.0 ports
  • possibility to connect an external memory device or a DVD writer
  • support for SATA HDDs up to 2TB (each HDD); the 250X08 M72508 and 250X16 M72516 models include HDD bay
  • built-in web server accessible via Internet Explorer
  • free applications for PCs to support management of multiple remote DVRs
  • free software (mobile streaming players) for remote monitoring via mobile phones operating in 3G/3.5G networks (Windows Mobile, Symbian, iPhone)
Example of application in a CCTV system
The digital recorders of TREND 250 series can be used in shops and stores, warehouses, offices, manufacturing facilities, as well as for monitoring private buildings - houses and housing developments.
The excellent features and a wide range of applications make the TREND brand a market leader in its category.
Online video sharing with multiple users - restreaming. IP camera can provide video stream for a few people. The problem arises when we want to make the stream available for dozens or hundreds of people. In such situations, the solution is to use an external dedicated server, able to generate up to several hundred video streams.
The examples of installations based on restreaming, which allow for simultaneous viewing of images by a hundred of Internet users, are several selected cameras deployed in Krakow.

The Pixord P600E K1532 cameras generate compressed H.264 stream using RTSP protocol. The stream is sent to a specially configured server which changes the protocol to RTMP and can duplicate the stream many times. Flash plug-in installed on the computer of each Internet user displays the live video (and plays optional sound) in any web browser window. The video window can be embedded in any HTML page.

The main advantage of the solution is that Internet users view the page generated by the service owner server but the video transmitted from the camera is downloaded from the streaming server. This is important in the case of hosting services, where costs are associated with the generated traffic.
Outdoor Camera Housing: Marathon MH-806/12Megapixel network camera: PIXORD P600E (2.0 Mpx, H.264, PoE)
Application of a streaming server
The bandwidth of the video stream from each camera has been limited to 1 Mbit/s, and the images at 25 fps have resolution of 640 x 480 pixels, so that the users of typical broadband Internet services can watch smooth video. The Pixord P600 K1532 cameras have been mounted in IP66 Marathon M5406 housings equipped with heaters and fans to prevent fogging of the lenses.
New functions of modern CCTV cameras - 3D DNR (3-Dimensional Digital Noise Reduction). 3D DNR is an innovative development of the popular DNR function. 3D filter cuts the noise caused by low light, which improves S/N ratio and effective resolution of the image. This provides a fairly clear picture in very low light conditions.
3D DNR compares subsequent image frames. If, as a result of this analysis, it finds a difference between the images resulting from noise, it removes the very small grains, replacing them with average values.
Additionally, the function can significantly reduce the amount of the data that is recorded on the hard disk of the DVR. This reduction can reach up to 70%.
Comparison of standard DNR (on the left) and 3D DNR (on the right)
Color Vandal-proof Camera: SN-FXP3200MIR (WDR)
Color vandal-proof day/night camera SN-FXP3200MIR (WDR) M10790
with 3D DNR function, motion detection and privacy zones
Home Wi-Fi network - Internet provided wirelessly. In this configuration, the employed AP should support WISP mode (Wireless Internet Service Providers) - e.g. N2350. The router can be connected directly to the computer using UTP/FTP cable.
It is possible to share the wired connection among several computers using a switch connected to the LAN port of the device, e.g. N29915.
If the users want to have both wired and wireless access to the Internet, they should use TP-Link TL-WR542G N2950 - wireless AP/router with built-in 4-port switch.
TL-WA5210G N2350 is a very flexible device that can operate as:
  • Router Client (WISP),
  • AP Router,
  • Access Point,
  • Client, WDS Bridge,
  • Repeater.
Wireless Router: TP-Link TL-WR542G - eXtended Range<br />(with 4-port switch)Access Point TP-LINK TL-WA5210G (outdoor)
Home LAN/WLAN - application of N2950 allows both wired and wireless access to the Internet
We have written about:

TERRA multiswitches save the situation. One of installers in Wroclaw undertook the installation of terrestrial and satellite TV signal distribution system in a housing development consisting of several multi-family residential buildings. A complicated topology associated with the requirements of the developer allowed to take into account only first-class devices.
The location of the houses is shown below. The whole SMATV system should provide signals to 320 outlets...
The layout of the buildings that have been connected with coaxial cables

Night video surveillance of private property. The owner of the property, after a burglary attempt, has invested in an alarm and monitoring system.
In the case of CCTV system, the optimum choice has proved to be 2.0 megapixel IP camera ULTICAM DS-852MF-E K1441 equipped with Tokina lens M2302. The owner mainly demanded good image at night, that's why it was necessary to employ the powerful IR illuminator Redbeam IR40 M1640 ...

Redbeam - IR illuminators
Ground-breaking Redbeam illuminators - welcome to watch the movie
Home Gigabit LAN and high speed WLAN - TP-LINK devices. New functions of home and office LAN and WLAN networks associated with the transmission of video streams require more bandwidth than provided by the traditional Fast Ethernet.
It is recommended to build modern LANs even when the external links have low capacity, because the LAN parameters are important to transfer audio-video files from local servers to the playback devices (computers, televisions etc.) and CCTV images from cameras to the DVRs or recording servers...

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